ᱢᱩᱬᱩᱛ ᱢᱮᱱᱩ ᱡᱷᱤᱡᱽ ᱢᱮ
ᱯᱮᱨᱤᱥ ᱱᱟᱜᱟᱨ

ᱯᱮᱨᱤᱥ ᱫᱚ ᱯᱷᱨᱟᱱᱥ ᱫᱤᱥᱚᱢ ᱨᱮᱱᱟᱜ ᱨᱟᱡᱽᱜᱟᱲ ᱠᱟᱱᱟ ᱾ ᱱᱚᱶᱟ ᱫᱚ ᱚᱸᱰᱮᱱᱟᱜ ᱡᱚᱛᱚ ᱠᱷᱚᱱ ᱢᱟᱨᱟᱝ ᱱᱟᱜᱟᱨ ᱠᱟᱱᱟ ᱾ ᱱᱚᱣᱟ ᱨᱮᱱᱟᱜ ᱚᱥᱟᱨ-ᱵᱤᱥᱟᱹᱨ ᱫᱚ ᱑᱐᱕ km2 ᱟᱨ ᱥᱩᱨᱥᱩᱨᱩᱨ ᱒.᱑᱕ ᱢᱤᱞᱤᱭᱚᱱ ᱦᱚᱲ ᱠᱚ ᱛᱟᱦᱮᱸᱱ ᱠᱟᱱᱟ ᱾ ᱚᱱᱟ ᱥᱩᱯᱩᱨ ᱴᱚᱠᱷᱟ ᱦᱚᱲ ᱠᱚ ᱞᱮᱠᱷᱟ ᱥᱮᱞᱮᱫ ᱞᱮᱠᱚ ᱠᱷᱟᱱ ᱯᱮᱨᱤᱥ ᱨᱤᱱ ᱦᱚᱲ ᱠᱚᱣᱟ ᱮᱞ ᱫᱚ ᱑᱒ ᱢᱤᱞᱤᱭᱚᱱ ᱠᱷᱚᱱ ᱵᱟᱹᱲᱛᱤᱜ-ᱟ ᱾
ᱥᱚᱭᱱᱤ ᱜᱟᱰᱟ ᱫᱚ ᱯᱮᱨᱤᱥ ᱨᱮᱱᱟᱜ ᱢᱟᱨᱮ ᱴᱷᱟᱶ ᱥᱮᱫ ᱛᱮ ᱞᱤᱸᱡᱤᱱ ᱠᱟᱱᱟ ᱟᱨ ᱵᱟᱨ ᱴᱷᱮᱱᱮ ᱦᱟᱹᱴᱤᱧ ᱟᱠᱟᱫ-ᱟ, ᱡᱟᱦᱟᱸ ᱫᱚ ᱮᱛᱚᱢ ᱰᱷᱤᱯ (Left Bank) ᱟᱨ ᱠᱚᱧᱮ ᱰᱷᱤᱯ (Right Bank) ᱾ ᱱᱚᱣᱟ ᱫᱚ ᱟᱭᱢᱟ ᱜᱚᱴᱟᱝ ᱵᱩᱨᱩ ᱛᱮ ᱮᱥᱮᱫ ᱟᱠᱟᱱᱟ ᱾
ᱯᱮᱨᱤᱥ ᱫᱚ ᱯᱷᱨᱮᱸᱪ ᱨᱮᱱᱟᱜ ᱠᱟᱹᱣᱰᱤ, ᱨᱟᱡᱽᱨᱤ, ᱴᱨᱟᱯᱷᱤᱠ ᱟᱨ ᱞᱟᱠᱪᱟᱨ ᱨᱮᱱᱟᱜ ᱛᱟᱞᱢᱟ ᱠᱟᱱᱟ ᱾ ᱯᱮᱨᱤᱥ ᱨᱮ ᱟᱭᱢᱟ ᱦᱩᱱᱟᱹᱨ ᱢᱤᱣᱡᱤᱭᱚᱢ ᱟᱨ ᱱᱟᱜᱟᱢᱟᱱᱟᱜ ᱵᱤᱞᱰᱤᱝ ᱠᱚ ᱢᱮᱱᱟᱜ-ᱟ ᱾ ᱴᱨᱟᱯᱷᱤᱠ ᱛᱟᱞᱢᱟ ᱞᱮᱠᱟᱛᱮ, ᱯᱮᱨᱤᱥ ᱨᱮ ᱫᱚ ᱟᱹᱰᱤ ᱵᱷᱟᱹᱜ ᱚᱛᱞᱟᱛᱟᱨ ᱦᱚᱨ ᱥᱩᱵᱤᱫᱷᱟ ᱢᱮᱱᱟᱜ-ᱟ, ᱡᱟᱦᱟᱸ ᱫᱚ ᱢᱮᱴᱨᱚ ᱠᱚ ᱢᱮᱛᱟᱜ ᱠᱟᱱᱟ ᱾ ᱢᱮᱴᱨᱚ ᱫᱚ ᱑᱙᱐᱐ ᱥᱟᱞᱮ ᱨᱮ ᱵᱮᱱᱟᱣ ᱞᱮᱱ ᱛᱟᱦᱮᱸᱫ ᱟᱨ ᱱᱚᱣᱟ ᱨᱮᱱᱟᱜ ᱡᱤᱞᱤᱧ ᱡᱚ ᱒᱐᱐ ᱠᱤᱞᱚᱢᱤᱴᱚᱨ ᱠᱷᱚᱱ ᱵᱟᱹᱲᱛᱤᱜ-ᱟ ᱾ ᱯᱮᱨᱤᱥ ᱨᱮ ᱵᱟᱨᱭᱟ ᱩᱰᱷᱟᱹᱱ ᱜᱷᱟᱴ (airport) ᱢᱮᱱᱟᱜ-ᱟ ᱾
ᱱᱟᱜᱟᱨ ᱫᱚ ᱦᱩᱱᱟᱹᱨ ᱞᱟᱠᱪᱟᱨ ᱛᱮ ᱜᱟᱵᱟᱣ ᱟᱠᱟᱱᱟ, ᱪᱮᱫᱟᱜ ᱥᱮ ᱱᱚᱸᱰᱮ ᱢᱮᱱᱟᱜ ᱠᱚ ᱒᱐ % ᱦᱚᱲ ᱫᱚ ᱮᱴᱟᱜ ᱠᱚᱨᱮ ᱠᱷᱚᱱ ᱠᱚ ᱦᱮᱫ ᱟᱠᱟᱱᱟ ᱾ ᱱᱚᱸᱰᱮ ᱟᱭᱢᱟ ᱵᱷᱮᱯᱮᱫ ᱨᱮᱥᱴᱩᱨᱟᱱᱴ ᱢᱮᱱᱟᱜ-ᱟ ᱟᱨ ᱡᱚᱛᱚ ᱞᱮᱠᱟᱱ ᱡᱚᱢ ᱜᱮ ᱧᱟᱢᱚᱜ-ᱟ ᱾ ᱯᱮᱨᱤᱥ ᱛᱤᱢᱤᱱ ᱞᱮᱠᱟᱱ ᱠᱟᱪᱨᱟ ᱦᱚᱸ ᱧᱮᱞᱚᱜ-ᱟ ᱡᱮᱢᱚᱱ ᱦᱚᱭ ᱠᱟᱪᱨᱟ (Air pollution) ᱟᱨ ᱢᱟᱨᱥᱟᱞ ᱠᱟᱪᱨᱟ (Light pollution) ᱮᱢᱟᱱ ᱾

ᱱᱟᱜᱟᱢᱥᱟᱯᱲᱟᱣ

ᱡᱩᱞᱤᱭᱚᱥ ᱥᱤᱡᱚᱨ ᱥᱮᱞᱴᱤᱠ ᱨᱤᱱ ᱯᱮᱨᱤᱥᱤ ᱟᱹᱫᱤᱵᱟᱹᱥᱤ ᱠᱚᱭ ᱡᱤᱛᱠᱟᱹᱨ ᱠᱮᱫ ᱠᱚᱣᱟ ᱑᱕ BC ᱨᱮ ᱾ ᱨᱚᱢᱟᱱᱥ ᱠᱚ ᱱᱚᱣᱟ ᱴᱷᱟᱶ ᱫᱚ ᱞᱩᱴᱮᱥᱤᱭᱟ ᱟᱨᱟᱵᱟᱝ ᱞᱩᱴᱮᱥᱤᱭᱟ ᱯᱟᱨᱤᱥᱤᱭᱚᱳᱢ[᱑][᱒][᱓] ᱚᱱᱟ ᱛᱟᱭᱚᱢ ᱒᱑᱒ AD ᱨᱮ ᱠᱷᱟᱴᱚ ᱠᱟᱛᱮ ᱯᱮᱨᱤᱥ ᱠᱚ ᱧᱩᱢ ᱠᱮᱫ-ᱟ ᱾ [᱔]
ᱨᱚᱢᱟᱱ ᱦᱚᱲ ᱚᱸᱰᱮ ᱠᱷᱚᱱ ᱠᱚ ᱦᱟᱱᱛᱮ ᱱᱷᱟᱛᱮ ᱤᱫᱤᱭᱮᱱ ᱛᱟᱭᱚᱢ, ᱡᱚᱨᱱᱤᱭᱟᱹ ᱟᱹᱫᱤᱵᱟᱹᱥᱤ ᱡᱟᱦᱟᱸᱭ ᱠᱚ ᱫᱚ ᱯᱷᱨᱟᱠᱥ ᱠᱚ ᱢᱮᱛᱟ ᱠᱚ ᱠᱟᱱ ᱛᱟᱦᱮᱸᱫ, ᱟᱫᱚ ᱩᱱᱠᱩ ᱚᱸᱰᱮ ᱠᱚ ᱥᱚᱲᱚ ᱵᱚᱞᱚᱭᱮᱱᱟ ᱔᱖᱔ ᱥᱟᱞᱮ ᱥᱮᱫ ᱨᱮ ᱾ ᱚᱱᱟ ᱛᱟᱭᱚᱢ ᱕᱐᱖ ᱥᱟᱞᱮ ᱨᱮ ᱟᱚᱭᱤᱡ ᱨᱟᱡᱟ ᱠᱞᱚᱵᱤᱥ-᱑ ᱚᱸᱰᱮ ᱨᱟᱡᱽᱜᱟᱲ ᱮ ᱵᱮᱨᱮᱫ ᱠᱮᱫ-ᱟ ᱾ ᱪᱟᱨᱞᱮᱢᱟᱜᱽᱱᱤ ᱟᱡᱟᱜ ᱨᱟᱡᱽᱜᱟᱲ ᱡᱚᱨᱢᱟᱱ ᱨᱮᱱᱟᱜ ᱟᱪᱮᱱ ᱱᱟᱜᱟᱨ ᱛᱮᱭ ᱩᱪᱟᱹᱲ ᱠᱮᱫ-ᱟ, ᱤᱠᱷᱟᱹᱱ ᱯᱮᱨᱤᱥ ᱫᱚ ᱞᱟᱹᱛᱤᱭᱟᱱ ᱱᱟᱜᱟᱨ ᱜᱮ ᱛᱟᱦᱮᱸᱭᱮᱱᱟ ᱟᱨ ᱵᱷᱤᱠᱤᱝᱥ ᱫᱟᱨᱟᱭ ᱛᱮ ᱵᱟᱨ ᱫᱷᱟᱣ ᱟᱠᱨᱚᱢᱚᱬ ᱦᱩᱭ ᱞᱮᱱ ᱛᱟᱦᱮᱸᱫ ᱾ᱡᱚᱠᱷᱚᱱ ᱦᱩᱜᱽ ᱠᱟᱯᱮᱴ ᱯᱨᱟᱱᱥ ᱨᱤᱱᱤᱡ ᱨᱟᱡᱟ ᱞᱮᱠᱟᱛᱮᱭ ᱛᱟᱦᱮᱸ ᱠᱟᱱᱟ ᱙᱘᱗ ᱥᱟᱞᱮ ᱨᱮ, ᱩᱱᱤ ᱟᱨ ᱫᱚᱲᱦᱟ ᱯᱮᱨᱤᱥ ᱨᱮ ᱟᱡᱟᱜ ᱨᱮᱡᱽᱜᱟᱲ ᱮ ᱵᱮᱱᱟᱣ ᱠᱮᱫ-ᱟ ᱾ ᱟᱹᱰᱤ ᱫᱤᱱ ᱱᱩᱭ ᱨᱟᱡᱟ ᱜᱮ ᱯᱮᱨᱤᱥ ᱟᱨ ᱵᱷᱤᱲᱟᱹ-ᱵᱷᱤᱲᱤ ᱴᱚᱴᱷᱟ ᱠᱚᱭ ᱥᱟᱢᱵᱽᱲᱟᱣ ᱠᱮᱫ-ᱟ ᱾

ᱦᱚᱭ-ᱦᱤᱥᱤᱫᱥᱟᱯᱲᱟᱣ

ᱯᱮᱨᱤᱥ ᱨᱮ ᱫᱚ ᱢᱟᱦᱟᱫᱚᱨᱭᱟ ᱦᱚᱭᱦᱤᱥᱤᱜ ᱞᱚᱞᱚᱥᱚᱝ (temperature) ᱛᱟᱦᱮᱸᱱᱟ ᱾ ᱱᱚᱸᱰᱮ ᱥᱤᱛᱩᱝ ᱨᱤᱛᱩ ᱨᱮ ᱫᱚ ᱩᱨᱜᱩᱢᱟ ᱟᱨ ᱨᱟᱵᱟᱝ ᱨᱤᱛᱩ ᱨᱮ ᱫᱚ ᱨᱮᱭᱟᱲ ᱜᱮ ᱵᱩᱡᱷᱟᱹᱣᱜ-ᱟ ᱾ ᱥᱮᱨᱢᱟ ᱯᱩᱨᱟᱹᱣ ᱨᱮ ᱛᱟᱞᱟᱢᱟᱞᱟ ᱫᱷᱟᱨᱟ ᱜᱮ ᱫᱟᱜ ᱫᱚ ᱧᱩᱨᱩᱜ-ᱟ ᱾

ᱧᱮᱞᱡᱚᱝᱥᱟᱯᱲᱟᱣ

ᱯᱮᱨᱤᱥ ᱨᱮ ᱫᱚ ᱟᱹᱰᱤ ᱱᱟᱯᱟᱭ ᱱᱟᱯᱟᱭ ᱧᱮᱞᱡᱚᱝ ᱴᱷᱟᱶ ᱠᱚ ᱢᱮᱱᱟᱜ-ᱟ ᱾ ᱚᱱᱟ ᱠᱚ ᱛᱤᱢᱤᱱ ᱜᱮᱱ ᱞᱟᱛᱟᱨ ᱨᱮ ᱚᱞ ᱮᱱᱟ :-

  • ᱮᱯᱷᱤᱞ ᱴᱟᱣᱟᱨ ᱫᱚ ᱯᱮᱨᱤᱥ ᱨᱮᱱᱟᱜ ᱟᱹᱰᱤ ᱧᱩᱛᱩᱢᱟᱱ ᱴᱷᱟᱶ ᱠᱟᱱᱟ, ᱡᱟᱦᱟᱸ ᱫᱚ ᱜᱚᱥᱴᱮᱵ ᱤᱯᱷᱮᱞ ᱑᱘᱘᱙ ᱥᱟᱞᱮ ᱨᱮ ᱵᱮᱱᱟᱣ ᱞᱮᱫ ᱛᱟᱦᱮᱸᱫ ᱾ ᱱᱚᱣᱟ ᱨᱮᱱᱟᱜ ᱩᱥᱩᱞ ᱫᱚ ᱓᱐᱐ ᱢᱤᱴᱚᱨ, ᱡᱟᱦᱟᱸ ᱫᱚ ᱟᱹᱰᱤ ᱫᱤᱱ ᱦᱟᱹᱵᱤᱡ ᱡᱮᱜᱮᱛ ᱨᱮᱱᱟᱜ ᱡᱚᱛᱚ ᱠᱷᱚᱱ ᱩᱥᱩᱞ ᱴᱟᱣᱟᱨ ᱞᱮᱠᱟᱛᱮ ᱛᱟᱦᱮᱸ ᱠᱟᱱᱟ ᱾
  • 'ᱞᱚᱣᱵᱽᱨᱤ ᱫᱚ ᱢᱤᱫ ᱢᱤᱣᱡᱤᱭᱚᱢ ᱠᱟᱱᱟ, ᱱᱚᱸᱰᱮ ᱟᱹᱰᱤ ᱢᱟᱨᱮ ᱪᱤᱛᱟᱹᱨ ᱡᱮᱢᱚᱱ ᱢᱚᱱᱟᱞᱤᱥᱟ ᱟᱨ ᱵᱷᱮᱱᱚᱥ ᱰᱤ ᱢᱤᱞᱚ ᱮᱢᱟᱱᱟᱜ ᱠᱚ ᱥᱟᱢᱴᱟᱣ ᱫᱚᱦᱚ ᱟᱠᱟᱱᱟ ᱾ ᱱᱚᱣᱟ ᱵᱤᱞᱰᱤᱝ ᱫᱚ ᱯᱷᱨᱮᱸᱪ ᱨᱤᱱᱤᱡ ᱨᱟᱡᱟ ᱚᱲᱟᱜ ᱞᱮᱠᱟ ᱵᱮᱱᱟᱣ ᱟᱠᱟᱱᱟ ᱾ ᱱᱚᱣᱟ ᱫᱚ ᱡᱮᱜᱮᱛ ᱨᱮᱱᱟᱜ ᱛᱮᱥᱟᱨ ᱢᱟᱨᱟᱝ ᱢᱤᱣᱡᱤᱭᱚᱢ ᱠᱟᱱᱟ, ᱡᱟᱦᱟᱸ ᱫᱚ ᱖᱐,᱐᱐᱐ m2 ᱟᱜ ᱧᱮᱞᱡᱚᱝ ᱚᱲᱟᱜ ᱢᱮᱱᱟᱜ-ᱟ ᱾ ᱱᱚᱣᱟ ᱫᱚ ᱡᱚᱛᱚ ᱠᱷᱚᱱ ᱵᱟᱹᱲᱛᱤ ᱦᱚᱲ ᱥᱮᱱᱚᱜ ᱠᱟᱱ ᱧᱮᱞᱡᱚᱝ ᱢᱤᱣᱡᱤᱭᱚᱢ ᱠᱟᱱᱟ, ᱥᱩᱨᱥᱩᱯᱩᱨ ᱕ ᱢᱤᱞᱩᱭᱚᱱ ᱦᱚᱲ ᱠᱚ ᱥᱮᱱᱚᱜ ᱠᱟᱱᱟ ᱥᱮᱨᱢᱟ ᱨᱮ ᱾

ᱚᱛᱱᱚᱥᱟᱯᱲᱟᱣ

 

ᱟᱱᱟᱜᱚᱱᱟ ᱥᱩᱵᱤᱫᱷᱟᱥᱟᱯᱲᱟᱣ

ᱱᱚᱰᱮ ᱟᱱᱟᱜᱚᱱᱟ ᱨᱮᱱᱟᱜ ᱫᱚ ᱟᱹᱰᱤ ᱞᱮᱠᱟᱱ ᱥᱩᱵᱤᱫᱷᱟ ᱢᱮᱱᱟᱜ-ᱟ, ᱡᱟᱦᱟᱸᱭ ᱠᱚ ᱫᱟᱬᱟᱱ ᱦᱤᱡᱩᱜ ᱟᱹᱰᱤ ᱠᱚ ᱥᱩᱵᱤᱫᱷᱟᱜ-ᱟ ᱾ ᱟᱭᱢᱟ ᱧᱩᱛᱩᱢᱟᱱ ᱧᱮᱞᱡᱚᱝ ᱴᱷᱟᱶ ᱠᱚ ᱫᱚ ᱱᱟᱜᱟᱨ ᱨᱮᱱᱟᱜ ᱛᱞᱢᱟ ᱨᱮ ᱢᱮᱱᱟᱜ-ᱟ ᱟᱨ ᱛᱟᱲᱟᱢ ᱠᱚᱛᱮ ᱦᱚᱸ ᱧᱮᱞ ᱜᱟᱱᱚᱜ-ᱟ ᱾ ᱟᱨᱦᱚᱸ ᱴᱷᱟᱶ ᱠᱚ ᱢᱮᱱᱟᱜ ᱡᱟᱦᱟᱸ ᱫᱚ ᱱᱟᱥᱮ ᱥᱟᱺᱜᱤᱧ ᱫᱷᱟᱨᱟ ᱨᱮ ᱟᱨ ᱟᱱᱟᱜᱚᱱᱟ ᱵᱮᱵᱚᱥᱛᱟ ᱧᱮᱞ ᱜᱩᱭᱩᱜ-ᱟ ᱾ ᱫᱤᱥᱣᱟᱹ ᱜᱟᱹᱰᱤ ᱢᱚᱴᱚᱨ ᱛᱮ ᱟᱹᱰᱤ ᱠᱷᱚᱨᱚᱪ ᱛᱮ ᱟᱱᱟᱜᱚᱱᱟ ᱜᱩᱭ ᱫᱟᱲᱮᱭᱟᱜ-ᱟ ᱠᱟᱱᱟ ᱟᱨ ᱧᱮᱞ ᱡᱚᱝ ᱨᱮᱱᱟᱜ ᱨᱟᱹᱥᱠᱟᱹ ᱦᱚᱸ ᱵᱚᱱ ᱤᱫᱤ ᱫᱟᱲᱮᱭᱟᱜ-ᱟ ᱾
ᱯᱮᱨᱤᱥ ᱢᱮᱴᱨᱚ ᱥᱤᱥᱴᱚᱢ ᱫᱚ ᱑᱙᱙᱐ ᱥᱟᱞᱮ ᱨᱮ ᱤᱸᱡᱤᱱᱤᱭᱟᱹᱨ ᱯᱷᱩᱞᱜᱮᱱᱥ ᱟᱨ ᱟᱨᱪᱤᱴᱮᱠᱪᱚᱨ ᱦᱮᱠᱴᱚᱨ ᱜᱩᱭᱢᱟᱨᱰ ᱠᱤᱱ ᱵᱮᱱᱟᱣ ᱞᱮᱫ ᱛᱟᱦᱮᱸᱫ ᱾ ᱢᱮᱴᱨᱚ ᱦᱚᱨ ᱨᱮᱱᱟᱜ ᱡᱤᱞᱤᱧ ᱫᱚ ᱑᱒᱔ ᱢᱟᱭᱩᱞ ᱟᱨ ᱓᱐᱐ ᱜᱚᱴᱟᱝ ᱥᱴᱮᱥᱚᱱ ᱢᱮᱱᱟᱜ-ᱟ [᱕] ᱟᱨ ᱑᱖ ᱜᱚᱴᱟᱝ ᱞᱟᱹᱭᱤᱱ ᱾ ᱫᱤᱱ ᱜᱤᱞᱚᱜ ᱜᱮ ᱖ ᱢᱤᱞᱤᱭᱚᱱ ᱦᱚᱲ ᱠᱚ ᱟᱱᱟᱜᱚᱱᱟᱜ ᱠᱟᱱᱟ ᱾ ᱢᱮᱴᱨᱚ ᱫᱚ ᱴᱨᱟᱯᱷᱤᱠ ᱵᱷᱤᱲ-ᱵᱷᱟᱲ ᱠᱚ ᱠᱚᱢ ᱞᱟᱹᱜᱤᱫ ᱛᱮᱭᱟᱨ ᱟᱠᱟᱱᱟ ᱾ ᱡᱚᱛᱚ ᱵᱤᱞᱰᱤᱝ ᱠᱚ ᱜᱮ ᱕᱐᱐ ᱢᱤᱴᱚᱨ ᱠᱷᱚᱱ ᱥᱩᱨ ᱦᱩᱭᱩᱜ-ᱟ ᱴᱨᱮᱱ ᱥᱴᱮᱥᱚᱱ ᱠᱷᱚᱱ, ᱚᱱᱟᱛᱮ ᱟᱱᱟᱜᱚᱱᱟ ᱨᱮᱱᱟᱜ ᱫᱚ ᱡᱟᱦᱟᱸᱱ ᱟᱱᱟᱴ ᱵᱟᱝ ᱛᱮᱭᱟᱨᱚᱜ-ᱟ ᱾


ᱵᱟᱨᱦᱮ ᱡᱚᱱᱚᱲᱥᱟᱯᱲᱟᱣ

ᱥᱟᱹᱠᱷᱭᱟᱹᱛᱥᱟᱯᱲᱟᱣ

  1. cite book|author=R. Anthony Lodge|title=A Sociolinguistic History of Parisian French|pages=37–38|publisher=Cambridge University Press|year=2004|isbn=9781139449786|url=https://books.google.com.au/books?id=Lecl8p6EsnUC
  2. cite book|author=Richard J. A. Talbert|title=Atlas of Classical History|page=135|publisher=Routledge|year=2002|isbn=9780203405352|url=https://books.google.com.au/books?id=pXfqmODj0AgC
  3. cite book|author=Russell L. Sturzebecker|title=Athletic-Cultural Archaeological Sites in the Greco-Roman World: Europe–North Africa–Middle East|page=62|publisher=R. L. Sturzebecker|year=1985|isbn=9780960046621|oclc=13238543|url=https://books.google.com.au/books?id=JEhoAAAAMAAJ
  4. cite web|url=http://www.venere.com/blog/paris-fun-facts/%7Ctitle=5 Fun Facts about Paris|accessdate=13 August 2013|publisher=Venere.com
  5. cite web|title=Statistiques Syndicat des transports d'Île-de-France rapport 2005|url=http://www.stif.info/IMG/pdf/STIF_Les_chiffres_2005.pdf%7Cformat=pdf%7Caccessdate=19 August 2011|language=French