ᱥᱟᱹᱨᱤ ᱨᱚᱸ ᱰᱤᱯᱴᱮᱨᱟ (ᱰᱤ=ᱫᱤ,ᱴᱮᱨᱚᱱ=ᱥᱟᱶ) ᱫᱚ ᱢᱤᱫᱞᱮᱠᱟᱱ ᱛᱤᱡᱩ ᱠᱟᱱᱟ ᱠᱚ᱾ ᱡᱟᱦᱟ ᱫᱚ ᱢᱮᱥᱚᱛᱷᱚᱨᱟᱥᱮᱠ ᱵᱟᱨ ᱜᱚᱴᱮᱜ ᱤᱞ ᱢᱮᱱᱟᱜ ᱛᱟᱠᱚᱣᱟ᱾ ᱟᱨ ᱢᱮᱴᱚᱨᱟᱥᱮᱠ ᱠᱷᱚᱱ ᱛᱟᱭᱚᱢ ᱤᱞ ᱨᱮᱱᱟᱜ ᱵᱟᱨᱭᱟ ᱦᱮᱞᱴᱮᱭᱟᱨ (en:halteres) ᱢᱮᱱᱟᱜ-ᱟ᱾  

Relationships to other insectsᱥᱟᱯᱲᱟᱣ

Dipterans are endopterygotes, insects that undergo radical metamorphosis. They belong to the Mecopterida, alongside the Mecoptera, Siphonaptera, Lepidoptera and Trichoptera.[᱑][᱒] The possession of a single pair of wings distinguishes most true flies from other insects with "fly" in their names. However, some true flies such as Hippoboscidae (louse flies) have become secondarily wingless.[᱓]

The cladogram represents the current consensus view.[᱔]

part of Endopterygota
Mecopterida
Antliophora

Diptera Common house fly, Musca domestica.jpg

Mecoptera (scorpionflies, hangingflies, 400 spp.) (exc. Boreidae) Gunzesrieder Tal Insekt 3.jpg

Boreidae (snow scorpionflies, 30 spp.) Boreus hiemalis2 detail.jpg

Siphonaptera (fleas, 2500 spp.) Pulex irritans female ZSM.jpg

Trichoptera (caddisflies) Sericostoma.personatum.jpg

Lepidoptera (butterflies and moths) Tyria jacobaeae-lo.jpg

Hymenoptera (sawflies, wasps, ants, bees) AD2009Sep09 Vespula germanica 03.jpg

Fossil nematoceran in Dominican amber. Sandfly, Lutzomyia adiketis (Psychodidae), Early Miocene, c. 20 million years ago

Relationships between fly subgroups and familiesᱥᱟᱯᱲᱟᱣ

Fossil brachyceran in Baltic amber. Lower Eocene, c. 50 million years ago

The first true dipterans known are from the Middle Triassic (around 240 million years ago), and they became widespread during the Middle and Late Triassic.[᱕] Modern flowering plants did not appear until the Cretaceous (around 140 million years ago), so the original dipterans must have had a different source of nutrition other than nectar. Based on the attraction of many modern fly groups to shiny droplets, it has been suggested that they may have fed on honeydew produced by sap-sucking bugs which were abundant at the time, and dipteran mouthparts are well-adapted to softening and lapping up the crusted residues.[᱖] The basal clades in the Diptera include the Deuterophlebiidae and the enigmatic Nymphomyiidae.[᱗] Three episodes of evolutionary radiation are thought to have occurred based on the fossil record. Many new species of lower Diptera developed in the Triassic, about 220 million years ago. Many lower Brachycera appeared in the Jurassic, some 180 million years ago. A third radiation took place among the Schizophora at the start of the Paleogene, 66 million years ago.[᱗]

The phylogenetic position of Diptera has been controversial. The monophyly of holometabolous insects has long been accepted, with the main orders being established as Lepidoptera, Coleoptera, Hymenoptera and Diptera, and it is the relationships between these groups which has caused difficulties. Diptera is widely thought to be a member of Mecopterida, along with Lepidoptera (butterflies and moths), Trichoptera (caddisflies), Siphonaptera (fleas), Mecoptera (scorpionflies) and possibly Strepsiptera (twisted-wing flies). Diptera has been grouped with Siphonaptera and Mecoptera in the Antliophora, but this has not been confirmed by molecular studies.[᱘]

Diptera were traditionally broken down into two suborders, Nematocera and Brachycera, distinguished by the differences in antennae. The Nematocera are identified by their elongated bodies and many-segmented, often feathery antennae as represented by mosquitoes and crane flies. The Brachycera have rounder bodies and much shorter antennae.[᱙][᱑᱐] Subsequent studies have identified the Nematocera as being non-monophyletic with modern phylogenies placing the Brachycera within grades of groups formerly placed in the Nematocera. The construction of a phylogenetic tree has been the subject of ongoing research. The following cladogram is based on the FLYTREE project.[᱗][᱑᱑][᱑᱒]

Nematocera

Ptychopteromorpha (phantom and primitive crane-flies) Ptychoptera contaminata.jpg

Culicomorpha (mosquitoes) AnophelesGambiaemosquito.jpg

Blephariceromorpha (net-winged midges, etc) Imago of Blepharicera fasciata as Asthenia fasciata in Westwood 1842, plate 94.png

Bibionomorpha (gnats) Bibio marci02.jpg

Psychodomorpha (drain flies, sand flies, etc) Clogmia Albipunctata or moth fly.jpg

Tipuloidea (crane flies) Tipula submarmorata, Abergwynant, North Wales, May 2015 (23422515666).jpg

Brachycera
Tab

Stratiomyomorpha (soldier flies, etc) Hermetia illucens Black soldier fly edit1.jpg

Xylophagomorpha (stink flies, etc) Stinkfliege Coenomyia ferruginea male.jpg

Tabanomorpha (horse flies, snipe flies, etc) Tabanus bromius01.jpg

Mus

Nemestrinoidea

Asiloidea (robber flies, bee flies, etc) Asilidae June 2011-1.jpg

Ere

Empidoidea (dance flies, etc) Empis.tessellata.male.jpg

Cyc

Aschiza (in part)

Phoroidea (flat-footed flies, etc) Polyporivora-picta-Platypezid-fly-20111015a.jpg

Syrphoidea (hoverflies) Mosca cernidora de la grosella.jpg

Sch
Cal

Hippoboscoidea (louse flies, etc) CrataerhinaPallida.jpg

Muscoidea (house flies, dung flies, etc) Musca domestica housefly.jpg

Oestroidea (blow flies, flesh flies, etc) Sarcophaga Bercaea2.jpg

Acalyptratae (marsh flies, etc) Marsh fly01.jpg

Abbreviations used in the cladogram:

ᱯᱷᱮᱵᱟᱛᱥᱟᱯᱲᱟᱣ

ᱪᱷᱟᱸᱪ:Wikispecies ᱪᱷᱟᱸᱪ:Wikisource1911Enc

General

Anatomy

Describers

ᱪᱷᱟᱸᱪ:Diptera ᱪᱷᱟᱸᱪ:Orders of Insects ᱪᱷᱟᱸᱪ:Insects in culture Script error: No such module "Taxonbar".

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  8. Wiegmann,Brian; Yeates, David K. (2012). The Evolutionary Biology of Flies. Columbia University Press. pp. 4–6. ISBN 978-0-231-50170-5. 
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  10. Wiegmann, Brian M.; Yeates, David K. (29 ᱱᱚᱵᱷᱮᱢᱵᱚᱨ 2007). "Diptera True Flies". Tree of Life. Retrieved 25 ᱢᱮ 2016. 
  11. Yeates, David K.; Meier, Rudolf; Wiegmann, Brian. "Phylogeny of True Flies (Diptera): A 250 Million Year Old Success Story in Terrestrial Diversification". Flytree. Retrieved 24 ᱢᱮ 2016. 
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