ᱥᱟᱹᱨᱤ ᱨᱚᱸ ᱰᱤᱯᱴᱮᱨᱟ (ᱰᱤ=ᱫᱤ,ᱴᱮᱨᱚᱱ=ᱥᱟᱶ) ᱫᱚ ᱢᱤᱫᱞᱮᱠᱟᱱ ᱛᱤᱡᱩ ᱠᱟᱱᱟ ᱠᱚ᱾ ᱡᱟᱦᱟ ᱫᱚ ᱢᱮᱥᱚᱛᱷᱚᱨᱟᱥᱮᱠ ᱵᱟᱨ ᱜᱚᱴᱮᱜ ᱤᱞ ᱢᱮᱱᱟᱜ ᱛᱟᱠᱚᱣᱟ᱾ ᱟᱨ ᱢᱮᱴᱚᱨᱟᱥᱮᱠ ᱠᱷᱚᱱ ᱛᱟᱭᱚᱢ ᱤᱞ ᱨᱮᱱᱟᱜ ᱵᱟᱨᱭᱟ ᱦᱮᱞᱴᱮᱭᱟᱨ (en:halteres) ᱢᱮᱱᱟᱜ-ᱟ᱾
Relationships to other insectsᱥᱟᱯᱲᱟᱣ
Dipterans are endopterygotes, insects that undergo radical metamorphosis. They belong to the Mecopterida, alongside the Mecoptera, Siphonaptera, Lepidoptera and Trichoptera. The possession of a single pair of wings distinguishes most true flies from other insects with "fly" in their names. However, some true flies such as Hippoboscidae (louse flies) have become secondarily wingless.
|part of Endopterygota||
Relationships between fly subgroups and familiesᱥᱟᱯᱲᱟᱣ
The first true dipterans known are from the Middle Triassic (around 240 million years ago), and they became widespread during the Middle and Late Triassic. Modern flowering plants did not appear until the Cretaceous (around 140 million years ago), so the original dipterans must have had a different source of nutrition other than nectar. Based on the attraction of many modern fly groups to shiny droplets, it has been suggested that they may have fed on honeydew produced by sap-sucking bugs which were abundant at the time, and dipteran mouthparts are well-adapted to softening and lapping up the crusted residues. The basal clades in the Diptera include the Deuterophlebiidae and the enigmatic Nymphomyiidae. Three episodes of evolutionary radiation are thought to have occurred based on the fossil record. Many new species of lower Diptera developed in the Triassic, about 220 million years ago. Many lower Brachycera appeared in the Jurassic, some 180 million years ago. A third radiation took place among the Schizophora at the start of the Paleogene, 66 million years ago.
The phylogenetic position of Diptera has been controversial. The monophyly of holometabolous insects has long been accepted, with the main orders being established as Lepidoptera, Coleoptera, Hymenoptera and Diptera, and it is the relationships between these groups which has caused difficulties. Diptera is widely thought to be a member of Mecopterida, along with Lepidoptera (butterflies and moths), Trichoptera (caddisflies), Siphonaptera (fleas), Mecoptera (scorpionflies) and possibly Strepsiptera (twisted-wing flies). Diptera has been grouped with Siphonaptera and Mecoptera in the Antliophora, but this has not been confirmed by molecular studies.
Diptera were traditionally broken down into two suborders, Nematocera and Brachycera, distinguished by the differences in antennae. The Nematocera are identified by their elongated bodies and many-segmented, often feathery antennae as represented by mosquitoes and crane flies. The Brachycera have rounder bodies and much shorter antennae. Subsequent studies have identified the Nematocera as being non-monophyletic with modern phylogenies placing the Brachycera within grades of groups formerly placed in the Nematocera. The construction of a phylogenetic tree has been the subject of ongoing research. The following cladogram is based on the FLYTREE project.
Abbreviations used in the cladogram:
|ᱣᱤᱠᱤᱠᱩᱣᱚᱴ ᱨᱮ Flies ᱥᱟᱶ ᱡᱚᱲᱟᱣᱟᱱᱟᱜ ᱠᱟᱛᱷᱟ ᱠᱚ ᱾|
|ᱣᱤᱠᱤᱢᱤᱰᱤᱭᱟ ᱠᱚᱢᱚᱱᱥ ᱨᱮ Diptera ᱵᱟᱵᱚᱛᱫᱽ ᱛᱮ ᱨᱮᱫ ᱢᱮᱱᱟᱜᱼᱟ ᱾.|
- The Systema Dipterorum Database site
- The Diptera.info portal with galleries and discussion forums
- FLYTREE – dipteran phylogeny
- The Dipterists Forum – The Society for the study of flies
- The World Catalog of Fossil Diptera
- The Tree of Life Project
- Peters, Ralph S.; Meusemann, Karen; Petersen, Malte; Mayer, Christoph; Wilbrandt, Jeanne; Ziesmann, Tanja; Donath, Alexander; Kjer, Karl M.; Aspöck, Ulrike; Aspöck, Horst; Aberer, Andre; Stamatakis, Alexandros; Friedrich, Frank; Hünefeld, Frank; Niehuis, Oliver; Beutel, Rolf G.; Misof, Bernhard (2014). "The evolutionary history of holometabolous insects inferred from transcriptome-based phylogeny and comprehensive morphological data". BMC Evolutionary Biology. 14 (1): 52. doi:10.1186/1471-2148-14-52. PMC . PMID 24646345.
- "Taxon: Superorder Antliophora". The Taxonomicon. Retrieved 21 ᱚᱜᱚᱥᱴ 2007.
- Hutson, A. M. (1984). Diptera: Keds, flat-flies & bat-flies (Hippoboscidae & Nycteribiidae). Handbooks for the Identification of British Insects. 10 pt 7. Royal Entomological Society of London. p. 84.
- Yeates, David K.; Wiegmann, Brian. "Endopterygota Insects with complete metamorphosis". Tree of Life. Retrieved 24 ᱢᱮ 2016.
- Blagoderov, V. A.; Lukashevich, E. D.; Mostovski, M. B. (2002). "Order Diptera Linné, 1758. The true flies". In Rasnitsyn, A. P.; Quicke, D. L. J. History of Insects. Kluwer Academic Publishers. ISBN 978-1-4020-0026-3.
- Downes, William L. Jr.; Dahlem, Gregory A. (1987). "Keys to the Evolution of Diptera: Role of Homoptera". Environmental Entomology. 16 (4): 847–854. doi:10.1093/ee/16.4.847.
- Wiegmann, B. M.; Trautwein, M. D.; Winkler, I. S.; Barr, N. B.; Kim, J.-W.; Lambkin, C.; Bertone, M. A.; Cassel, B. K.; et al. (2011). "Episodic radiations in the fly tree of life". PNAS. 108 (14): 5690–5695. Bibcode:2011PNAS..108.5690W. doi:10.1073/pnas.1012675108. PMC . PMID 21402926.
- Wiegmann,Brian; Yeates, David K. (2012). The Evolutionary Biology of Flies. Columbia University Press. pp. 4–6. ISBN 978-0-231-50170-5.
- B.B. Rohdendorf. 1964. Trans. Inst. Paleont., Acad. Sci. USSR, Moscow, v. 100
- Wiegmann, Brian M.; Yeates, David K. (29 ᱱᱚᱵᱷᱮᱢᱵᱚᱨ 2007). "Diptera True Flies". Tree of Life. Retrieved 25 ᱢᱮ 2016.
- Yeates, David K.; Meier, Rudolf; Wiegmann, Brian. "Phylogeny of True Flies (Diptera): A 250 Million Year Old Success Story in Terrestrial Diversification". Flytree. Retrieved 24 ᱢᱮ 2016.
- "FLYTREE". Illinois Natural History Survey. Retrieved 2016-07-22.