ᱜᱳᱣᱛᱚᱢ ᱵᱩᱫᱽᱫᱷᱚ
ᱡᱟᱱᱟᱢ ᱡᱤᱥᱩ ᱡᱟᱱᱟᱢ ᱞᱟᱦᱟ ᱟᱹᱱᱢᱟᱹᱱ

᱔᱒᱓ ᱥᱟᱭ ᱥᱮᱨᱢᱟ ᱵᱟᱝᱠᱷᱟᱡ ᱔᱘᱐ ᱥᱟᱭ ᱥᱮᱨᱢᱟ

ᱵᱚᱸᱜᱟ ᱛᱟᱞᱟ ᱡᱤᱥᱩ ᱡᱟᱱᱟᱢ ᱞᱟᱦᱟᱨᱮ ᱟᱹᱱᱢᱟᱹᱱ

᱓᱔᱓ ᱥᱟᱭ ᱥᱮᱨᱢᱟ ᱵᱟᱝᱠᱷᱟᱡ ᱔᱐᱐ ᱥᱟᱭ ᱥᱮᱨᱢᱟ

ᱮᱴᱟᱜ ᱧᱩᱛᱩᱢ ᱥᱤᱫᱫᱷᱟᱨᱛᱷᱚ ᱜᱳᱣᱛᱚᱢ, ᱥᱟᱠᱠᱚᱢᱩᱱᱤ
ᱜᱚᱜᱚ ᱵᱟᱵᱟ ᱢᱟᱭᱟ ᱫᱮᱵᱤ

ᱥᱩᱫᱫᱷᱚᱫᱷᱚᱱ

ᱜᱳᱣᱛᱚᱢ ᱵᱩᱫᱽᱫᱷᱚ ᱫᱚ ᱟᱹᱰᱤ ᱜᱮᱭᱟᱱᱤᱭᱟᱱ[᱑] ᱟᱨ ᱥᱟᱹᱫᱷᱩ ᱦᱚᱲ ᱮ ᱛᱟᱦᱮᱸ ᱠᱟᱱᱟ ᱡᱟᱦᱟᱸᱭᱟᱜ ᱥᱤᱠᱷᱱᱟᱹᱛᱛᱮ ᱵᱩᱫᱽᱫᱷᱚ ᱫᱷᱚᱨᱚᱢ ᱫᱚ ᱯᱟᱥᱱᱟᱣ ᱟᱠᱟᱱᱟ ᱾ ᱩᱱᱤᱫᱚ ᱥᱤᱫᱫᱷᱟᱨᱛᱷᱚ ᱜᱳᱣᱛᱚᱢ, ᱥᱟᱠᱠᱚᱢᱩᱱᱤ ᱵᱩᱫᱽᱫᱷᱚ ᱥᱮ ᱮᱠᱮᱱ ᱵᱩᱫᱽᱫᱷᱚ ᱧᱩᱛᱩᱢ ᱛᱮᱦᱚᱸ ᱠᱚ ᱧᱩᱢᱮ ᱜᱮᱭᱟ ᱾

ᱜᱳᱣᱛᱚᱢ ᱵᱩᱫᱽᱫᱷᱚ ᱫᱚ ᱵᱩᱫᱽᱫᱷᱚ ᱫᱷᱚᱨᱚᱢ ᱨᱮᱱ ᱢᱩᱬᱩᱛ ᱦᱚᱲ ᱠᱟᱱᱟᱭ ᱾ ᱫᱮᱵ ᱜᱮᱭᱟᱱ[᱒] ᱧᱟᱢ ᱠᱟᱛᱮ ᱡᱟᱦᱟᱸᱭ ᱫᱚ ᱫᱷᱚᱨᱚᱢ ᱮ ᱯᱟᱥᱱᱟᱣ ᱞᱮᱫᱼᱟ ᱾ ᱵᱷᱟᱨᱚᱛ ᱥᱟᱶ ᱮᱥᱤᱭᱟ ᱨᱮᱱᱟᱜ ᱟᱭᱢᱟ ᱫᱤᱥᱟᱹᱢ ᱫᱟᱬᱟ ᱠᱟᱛᱮ ᱡᱟᱦᱟᱸᱭ ᱫᱚ ᱫᱷᱚᱨᱚᱢ ᱮ ᱯᱟᱥᱱᱟᱣ ᱞᱮᱫᱼᱟ ᱾ ᱟᱡᱟᱜ ᱡᱤᱭᱚᱱ ᱨᱮ ᱡᱟᱦᱟᱸ ᱠᱚ ᱠᱟᱛᱷᱟᱭ ᱞᱟᱹᱭ ᱥᱚᱫᱚᱨ ᱟᱠᱟᱫᱼᱟ ᱚᱱᱟ ᱠᱚ ᱜᱮ ᱛᱟᱭᱚᱢ ᱛᱮ ᱚᱞ ᱫᱚᱦᱚ ᱠᱟᱛᱮ ᱵᱩᱫᱽᱫᱷᱚ ᱫᱷᱚᱨᱚᱢ ᱨᱮᱱᱟᱜ ᱯᱩᱛᱷᱤ ᱛᱨᱤᱯᱤᱴᱚᱠ ᱚᱞ ᱟᱠᱟᱱᱟ ᱾

ᱵᱩᱫᱽᱫᱷᱚᱣᱭᱟᱜ ᱡᱤᱭᱚᱱᱥᱟᱯᱲᱟᱣ

ᱮᱛᱦᱚᱵ ᱡᱤᱭᱚᱱᱥᱟᱯᱲᱟᱣ

ᱵᱷᱟᱨᱚᱛ ᱨᱮᱱᱟᱜ ᱩᱛᱟᱹᱨ ᱯᱩᱨᱩᱵ ᱥᱮᱡ ᱠᱳᱯᱤᱞᱟᱵᱳᱥᱛᱩ ᱫᱤᱥᱚᱢ ᱨᱮᱱ ᱨᱟᱡᱟ ᱥᱩᱫᱫᱷᱚᱫᱷᱚᱱ ᱟᱨ ᱨᱟᱹᱱᱤ ᱢᱟᱭᱟᱫᱮᱵᱤ ᱨᱮᱱ ᱠᱚᱲᱟ ᱜᱤᱫᱽᱨᱟᱹᱭ ᱛᱟᱦᱮᱸ ᱠᱟᱱᱟ ᱜᱳᱣᱛᱚᱢ ᱵᱩᱫᱽᱫᱷᱚ ᱫᱚ ᱾ ᱥᱟᱠᱠᱚ ᱵᱚᱝᱥᱚ ᱨᱮᱱᱟᱜ ᱯᱟᱹᱛᱭᱟᱹᱣ ᱦᱤᱥᱟᱹᱵ ᱛᱮ ᱢᱟᱭᱟᱫᱮᱵᱤᱭᱟᱜ ᱞᱟᱡ ᱨᱮ ᱡᱚᱠᱷᱚᱱ ᱜᱤᱫᱽᱨᱟᱹᱭ ᱛᱟᱦᱮᱸ ᱠᱟᱱᱟ ᱩᱱ ᱡᱚᱠᱷᱚᱡ ᱡᱟᱶᱟᱭ ᱚᱲᱟᱜ ᱠᱷᱚᱱ ᱟᱡ ᱵᱟᱵᱟ ᱛᱟᱠᱚ ᱚᱲᱟᱜ ᱪᱟᱞᱟᱜ ᱰᱟᱦᱟᱨ ᱨᱮ ᱞᱩᱢᱵᱤᱱᱤ ᱧᱩᱛᱩᱢᱟᱱ ᱟᱛᱳ ᱨᱮ ᱥᱟᱨᱡᱚᱢ ᱫᱟᱨᱮ ᱵᱩᱴᱟᱹᱨᱮ ᱜᱤᱫᱽᱨᱟᱹᱭ ᱡᱟᱱᱟᱢ ᱞᱮᱫᱮᱭᱟ ᱾ ᱩᱱᱤ ᱜᱤᱫᱽᱨᱟᱹ ᱡᱟᱱᱟᱢ ᱛᱟᱭᱚᱢ ᱮᱭᱟᱭ ᱢᱟᱦᱟᱸᱨᱮ ᱢᱟᱭᱟᱫᱮᱵᱤ ᱫᱚᱭ ᱵᱚᱸᱜᱟ ᱛᱟᱞᱟ ᱞᱮᱱᱟ ᱾ ᱩᱱᱤ ᱜᱤᱫᱽᱨᱟᱹ ᱡᱟᱱᱟᱢ ᱛᱟᱭᱚᱢ ᱧᱩᱛᱩᱢ ᱫᱚᱦᱚ ᱦᱤᱞᱚᱜ ᱚᱥᱤᱛ ᱧᱩᱛᱩᱢᱟᱱ ᱢᱤᱫᱴᱟᱹᱝ ᱥᱟᱹᱫᱷᱩ ᱩᱱᱤ ᱜᱤᱫᱽᱨᱟᱹ ᱧᱮᱞ ᱠᱟᱛᱮ ᱮ ᱢᱮᱱᱞᱮᱫᱼᱟ ᱡᱮ ᱱᱩᱭ ᱜᱤᱫᱽᱨᱟᱹ ᱫᱚ ᱥᱟᱹᱫᱷᱩᱭ ᱦᱩᱭᱩᱜᱼᱟ[᱓] ᱡᱟᱦᱟᱸᱭ ᱢᱤᱫ ᱫᱤᱱ ᱦᱤᱞᱚᱜ ᱱᱚᱶᱟ ᱫᱷᱟᱹᱨᱛᱤᱭ ᱨᱟᱡᱽᱼᱟ ᱾ ᱟᱫᱚ ᱩᱱᱤ ᱜᱤᱫᱽᱨᱟᱹ ᱟᱜ ᱧᱩᱛᱩᱢ ᱠᱚ ᱫᱚᱦᱚ ᱠᱮᱫᱼᱟ ᱥᱤᱫᱫᱷᱟᱨᱛᱷᱚ ᱾ ᱟᱡ ᱜᱚᱜᱚ ᱟᱜ ᱜᱚᱡ ᱛᱟᱭᱚᱢ ᱠᱟᱹᱠᱤ ᱜᱚᱜᱚ ᱜᱳᱣᱛᱳᱢᱤ ᱴᱷᱮᱱ ᱮ ᱦᱟᱨᱟ ᱵᱩᱨᱩ ᱞᱮᱱ ᱛᱮ ᱩᱱᱤᱫᱚ ᱥᱤᱫᱫᱷᱟᱨᱛᱷᱚ ᱜᱳᱣᱛᱚᱢ ᱦᱚᱸ ᱠᱚ ᱢᱮᱛᱟᱭ ᱜᱮᱭᱟ ᱾ ᱠᱟᱹᱴᱤᱡ ᱠᱷᱚᱱ ᱜᱮ ᱜᱳᱣᱛᱚᱢ ᱫᱚ ᱱᱟᱥᱮᱭᱟᱡ ᱡᱩᱫᱟᱹᱜᱮᱭ ᱛᱟᱸᱦᱮᱸᱠᱟᱱᱟ ᱾ ᱜᱷᱟᱨᱸᱨᱚᱸᱡᱽ ᱪᱮᱛᱟᱱ ᱢᱚᱱ ᱵᱟᱝ ᱛᱟᱦᱮᱸ ᱠᱟᱱ ᱛᱟᱭᱟ ᱾ ᱚᱱᱟ ᱠᱷᱟᱹᱛᱤᱨ ᱑᱖ ᱥᱮᱨᱢᱟ ᱨᱮ ᱜᱮ ᱡᱚᱥᱳᱫᱷᱚᱨᱟ ᱧᱩᱛᱩᱢᱟᱱ ᱱᱟᱯᱟᱭ ᱠᱩᱲᱤ ᱥᱟᱶᱛᱮ ᱠᱚ ᱵᱟᱯᱞᱟ ᱠᱮᱫᱮᱭᱟ ᱾ ᱩᱱᱠᱤᱱ ᱨᱮᱱ ᱨᱟᱦᱩᱞ ᱧᱩᱛᱩᱢᱟᱱ ᱢᱤᱫᱴᱟᱹᱝ ᱠᱚᱲᱟ ᱜᱤᱫᱽᱨᱟᱹᱭ ᱛᱟᱦᱮᱸ ᱠᱟᱱ ᱛᱟᱹᱠᱤᱱᱟ ᱾ ᱟᱡᱟᱜ ᱨᱟᱡᱽ ᱡᱤᱭᱚᱱ ᱨᱮ ᱡᱚᱛᱚᱣᱟᱜ ᱜᱮ ᱛᱟᱦᱮᱸ ᱛᱩᱞᱩᱡ ᱦᱚᱸ ᱜᱳᱣᱛᱚᱢ ᱵᱩᱫᱽᱫᱷᱚ ᱚᱲᱟᱜ ᱫᱩᱭᱟᱹᱨ ᱵᱟᱹᱜᱤ ᱠᱟᱛᱮᱫ ᱮ ᱩᱰᱩᱜᱽ ᱞᱮᱱᱟ ᱾

ᱫᱷᱚᱨᱚᱢ ᱯᱟᱥᱱᱟᱣᱥᱟᱯᱲᱟᱣ

ᱚᱲᱟᱜ ᱵᱟᱨᱦᱮ ᱚᱰᱚᱜᱽ ᱠᱟᱛᱮᱫ ᱮ ᱧᱮᱞ ᱠᱮᱫᱼᱟ ᱜᱚᱴᱟ ᱴᱟᱺᱰᱤ ᱜᱮ ᱫᱩᱠᱷ ᱟᱨ ᱫᱩᱠᱷ ᱾ ᱩᱱ ᱡᱚᱠᱷᱚᱡ ᱮ ᱵᱩᱡᱷᱦᱟᱹᱣ ᱧᱟᱢ ᱠᱮᱫᱼᱟ ᱱᱚᱶᱟ ᱫᱷᱟᱹᱨᱛᱤ ᱨᱮ ᱫᱚ ᱫᱷᱚᱱ ᱫᱩᱣᱞᱟᱹᱛ ᱥᱮ ᱨᱟᱡᱽ ᱫᱚ ᱪᱮᱫ ᱜᱮ ᱵᱟᱝ ᱛᱟᱦᱮᱸᱱᱟ ᱾ ᱚᱱᱟ ᱛᱟᱭᱚᱢ ᱢᱚᱬᱮ ᱥᱮᱨᱢᱟ ᱫᱷᱮᱭᱟᱱ ᱠᱟᱛᱮᱫ ᱫᱮᱵ ᱜᱮᱭᱟᱱ ᱮ ᱧᱟᱢ ᱠᱮᱫ ᱠᱷᱟᱱ ᱡᱤᱭᱚᱱ ᱨᱮᱱᱟᱜ ᱢᱮᱱᱮᱛ ᱵᱩᱡᱷᱟᱣ ᱧᱟᱢ ᱠᱮᱫᱼᱟ ᱾ ᱟᱫᱚ ᱟᱡᱟᱜ ᱥᱟᱫᱷᱚᱱ ᱚᱠᱛᱚ ᱨᱮ ᱡᱟᱦᱟᱸᱭ ᱠᱚ ᱥᱟᱶᱛᱮᱭ ᱧᱟᱢ ᱞᱮᱫ ᱠᱚᱣᱟ ᱥᱮ ᱡᱟᱦᱟᱸᱭ ᱫᱚ ᱥᱟᱶᱛᱮ ᱠᱚ ᱛᱟᱦᱮᱸ ᱠᱟᱱᱟ ᱩᱱᱠᱩ ᱴᱷᱮᱱ ᱜᱮ ᱟᱡ ᱮ ᱧᱟᱢ ᱟᱠᱟᱛ ᱫᱮᱵ ᱜᱮᱭᱟᱱ ᱮ ᱞᱟᱹᱭ ᱥᱚᱫᱚᱨ ᱠᱮᱫᱼᱟ ᱾ ᱚᱱᱠᱟ ᱛᱮ ᱜᱮ ᱫᱷᱚᱨᱚᱢ ᱯᱟᱥᱱᱟᱣ ᱮ ᱫᱷᱩᱨᱟᱹᱣ ᱮᱱᱟ ᱾ ᱩᱱᱠᱩ ᱱᱤᱭᱟᱹ ᱛᱮᱜᱮ ᱯᱟᱹᱦᱤᱞ ᱫᱚ ᱵᱩᱫᱽᱫᱷᱚ ᱥᱟᱶᱦᱮᱫ ᱠᱚ ᱵᱮᱱᱟᱣ ᱠᱮᱫᱼᱟ ᱾ ᱚᱱᱠᱟ ᱚᱱᱠᱟ ᱛᱮᱜᱮ ᱟᱡᱟᱜ ᱵᱮᱱᱟᱣ ᱥᱟᱶᱦᱮᱫ ᱞᱟᱹᱴᱩ ᱪᱟᱞᱟᱣ ᱮᱱᱟ ᱟᱨ ᱦᱚᱲ ᱠᱚ ᱦᱚᱸ ᱥᱮᱞᱮᱫᱚᱜ ᱛᱮ ᱜᱮ ᱠᱚ ᱫᱷᱩᱨᱟᱹᱣ ᱮᱱᱟ ᱾ ᱫᱮᱵ ᱜᱮᱭᱟᱱ ᱧᱟᱢ ᱛᱟᱭᱚᱢ ᱟᱡ ᱵᱟᱵᱟ ᱥᱩᱫᱫᱷᱚᱫᱷᱚᱱ ᱠᱳᱯᱤᱞᱟᱵᱳᱥᱛᱩ ᱨᱮ ᱵᱩᱫᱽᱫᱷᱚ ᱱᱮᱣᱛᱟᱭ ᱮᱢᱟᱣ ᱫᱮᱭᱟ ᱾ ᱚᱸᱰᱮ ᱵᱩᱫᱽᱫᱷᱚ ᱨᱮᱱ ᱜᱤᱫᱨᱟᱹ ᱨᱟᱦᱩᱞ ᱥᱟᱶ ᱟᱭᱢᱟ ᱦᱚᱲ ᱠᱚ ᱦᱚᱸ ᱟᱡᱴᱷᱮᱱ ᱠᱷᱚᱱ ᱫᱤᱠᱠᱷᱟᱹ ᱠᱚ ᱦᱟᱛᱟᱣ ᱠᱮᱫᱼᱟ ᱾

ᱚᱱᱚ ᱯᱮ ᱥᱮᱨᱢᱟ ᱛᱟᱭᱚᱢ ᱨᱳᱦᱤᱱᱤ ᱜᱟᱰᱟ ᱨᱮᱱᱟᱜ ᱫᱟᱜ ᱵᱷᱟᱜᱟᱵᱷᱟᱹᱜᱤ ᱱᱤᱭᱟᱹ ᱥᱟᱠᱠᱚ ᱥᱟᱶᱛᱮ ᱠᱳᱞᱤᱭᱳ ᱠᱚᱣᱟᱜ ᱵᱤᱵᱟᱹᱫ ᱦᱩᱭ ᱞᱮᱱᱟ ᱾ ᱟᱫᱚ ᱚᱱᱟ ᱵᱤᱵᱟᱹᱫ ᱵᱩᱫᱽᱫᱷᱚᱭ ᱥᱚᱢᱟᱫᱷᱟᱱ ᱠᱟᱫ ᱛᱟᱹᱠᱚᱣᱟ ᱾ ᱤᱱᱟᱹ ᱠᱤᱪᱷᱩᱫᱤᱱ ᱛᱟᱭᱚᱢ ᱜᱮ ᱟᱡ ᱵᱟᱵᱟ ᱥᱩᱫᱫᱷᱚᱫᱷᱚᱱ ᱮ ᱵᱚᱸᱜᱟ ᱛᱟᱞᱟᱞᱮᱱ ᱠᱷᱟᱡ ᱟᱡ ᱠᱟᱹᱠᱤ ᱜᱚᱜᱚ ᱵᱩᱫᱽᱫᱷᱚ ᱥᱟᱶᱦᱮᱫ ᱨᱮ ᱥᱮᱞᱮᱫᱚᱜ ᱨᱮᱱᱟᱜ ᱟᱸᱥ ᱮ ᱵᱟᱰᱟᱭ ᱚᱪᱚ ᱠᱮᱫᱮᱭᱟ ᱾ ᱯᱟᱹᱦᱤᱞ ᱨᱮᱫᱚ ᱵᱩᱫᱽᱫᱷᱚ ᱵᱟᱭ ᱨᱟᱡᱤ ᱞᱮᱱ ᱨᱮᱦᱚᱸ ᱛᱟᱭᱚᱢᱛᱮ ᱠᱩᱥᱤ ᱛᱮ ᱨᱟᱹᱡᱤ ᱮᱱ ᱠᱷᱟᱡ ᱯᱟᱹᱦᱤᱞ ᱫᱷᱟᱣ ᱞᱮᱠᱟᱛᱮ ᱠᱩᱲᱤ ᱜᱤᱫᱽᱨᱟᱹ ᱠᱚ ᱥᱮ ᱟᱭᱳ ᱦᱚᱲ ᱠᱚ ᱦᱚᱸᱭ ᱥᱟᱶᱦᱮᱫ ᱨᱮᱭ ᱥᱮᱞᱮᱫ ᱠᱮᱫ ᱠᱚᱣᱟ ᱾ ᱟᱫᱚ ᱚᱱᱠᱟ ᱚᱱᱠᱟ ᱛᱮᱜᱮ ᱜᱚᱴᱟ ᱵᱷᱟᱨᱚᱛ ᱫᱤᱥᱚᱢ ᱥᱟᱶ ᱮᱥᱤᱭᱟ ᱨᱮᱱᱟᱜ ᱮᱴᱟᱜ ᱫᱤᱥᱚᱢ ᱠᱚ ᱨᱮ ᱦᱚᱸ ᱟᱡᱟᱜ ᱫᱷᱚᱨᱚᱢ ᱮ ᱯᱟᱥᱱᱟᱣ ᱤᱫᱤ ᱞᱮᱫᱼᱟ ᱾

ᱟᱨᱦᱚᱸ ᱯᱟᱲᱦᱟᱣᱢᱮᱥᱟᱯᱲᱟᱣ

  • Bechert, Heinz, সম্পাদক (১৯৯৬)। When Did the Buddha Live? The Controversy on the Dating of the Historical Buddha। Delhi: Sri Satguru।
  • Ñāṇamoli, Bhikku (১৯৯২)। The Life of the Buddha According to the Pali Canon (3rd সংস্করণ)। Kandy, Sri Lanka: Buddhist Publication Society।
  • Wagle, Narendra K (১৯৯৫)। Society at the Time of the Buddha (2nd সংস্করণ)। Popular Prakashan। আইএসবিএন 978-817154553-7।
  • Rahula, Walpola (১৯৭৪)। What the Buddha Taught (2nd সংস্করণ)। New York: Grove Press।
  • Vetter, Tilmann (১৯৮৮)। The Ideas and Meditative Practices of Early Buddhism। Brill।
  • Kalupahana, David J. (১৯৯৪)। A history of Buddhist philosophy। Delhi: Motilal Banarsidass।
  • Robinson, Richard H.; Johnson, Willard L; Wawrytko, Sandra A; DeGraff, Geoffrey (১৯৯৬)। The Buddhist Religion: A Historical Introduction। Belmont, CA: Wadsworth।

ᱵᱟᱨᱦᱮ ᱡᱚᱱᱚᱲᱥᱟᱯᱲᱟᱣ

ᱥᱟᱹᱠᱷᱭᱟᱹᱛᱥᱟᱯᱲᱟᱣ

  1. Baroni 2002, পৃ. 230।
  2. Guang Xing (2005). The Three Bodies of the Buddha: The Origin and Development of the Trikaya Theory. Oxford: Routledge Curzon: pp.1 and 85
  3. Narada 1992, পৃ. 9–12।