ᱢᱟᱱᱤᱞᱟ

ᱯᱷᱤᱞᱤᱯᱟᱭᱤᱱ ᱨᱮᱱᱟᱜ ᱨᱟᱡᱽᱜᱟᱲ

ᱢᱟᱱᱤᱞᱟ ( /məˈnɪlə/, ᱛᱟᱜᱟᱞᱚᱜᱺ Maynilà, ᱪᱷᱟᱸᱪ:IPA-tl) ᱚᱯᱷᱤᱥᱤᱭᱟᱞᱤ ᱢᱟᱱᱤᱞᱟ ᱱᱟᱜᱟᱨ ᱫᱚ ᱯᱷᱤᱞᱤᱯᱟᱭᱤᱱ ᱨᱮᱱᱟᱜ ᱨᱟᱡᱽᱜᱟᱲ ᱱᱟᱜᱟᱨ ᱠᱟᱱᱟ᱾ ᱓᱑ ᱡᱩᱞᱟᱭ ᱑᱙᱐᱑ ᱥᱮᱨᱢᱟ ᱨᱮ "ᱯᱷᱤᱞᱤᱯᱟᱭᱤᱱ ᱠᱚᱢᱤᱥᱚᱱ ᱠᱟᱹᱱᱩᱱ" ᱫᱟᱲᱮ ᱛᱮ ᱱᱚᱣᱟ ᱱᱟᱜᱟᱨ ᱛᱷᱟᱯᱚᱱ ᱦᱩᱭ ᱞᱮᱱᱟ ᱟᱨ ᱑᱘ ᱡᱩᱞᱟᱭ ᱑᱙᱔᱙ ᱥᱮᱨᱢᱟ ᱨᱮ ᱟᱹᱯᱱᱟᱹᱛ ᱫᱷᱟᱨᱟ ᱔᱐᱙ ᱞᱮᱠᱟᱛᱮ ᱱᱚᱣᱟ ᱱᱟᱜᱟᱨ ᱚᱴᱚᱱᱚᱢᱤ ᱮ ᱧᱟᱢ ᱠᱮᱫᱟ᱾[᱑᱐] ᱢᱮᱠᱥᱤᱠᱚ ᱱᱟᱜᱟᱨ ᱟᱨ ᱢᱟᱫᱽᱨᱤᱫᱽ ᱱᱟᱜᱟᱨ ᱞᱮᱠᱟ ᱜᱮ ᱱᱚᱣᱟ ᱱᱟᱜᱟᱨ ᱦᱚ ᱡᱮᱜᱮᱛ ᱨᱮᱱᱟᱜ ᱡᱮᱜᱮᱛᱤᱭᱟᱹ ᱱᱟᱜᱟᱨ ᱢᱮᱱ ᱡᱩᱛᱩᱜᱼᱟ᱾ ᱪᱮᱫᱟᱜ ᱥᱮ ᱱᱚᱣᱟ ᱫᱚ ᱯᱨᱚᱥᱟᱱᱛ ᱢᱟᱦᱟᱫᱚᱨᱭᱟ ᱨᱮ ᱮᱥᱤᱭᱟ ᱟᱨ ᱥᱯᱮᱱᱤᱥ ᱟᱢᱮᱨᱤᱠᱟ ᱨᱮᱱᱟᱜ ᱫᱤᱥᱚᱢ ᱠᱚ ᱛᱟᱞᱟ ᱵᱮᱯᱟᱨᱼᱵᱟᱱᱤᱡᱽ ᱦᱚᱨᱛᱮ ᱡᱚᱯᱨᱟᱣ ᱢᱮᱱᱟᱜᱼᱟ᱾[᱑᱑] ᱢᱟᱱᱤᱞᱟ ᱫᱚ ᱟᱨᱦᱚ ᱡᱮᱜᱮᱛ ᱨᱮᱱᱜᱟ ᱫᱚᱥᱟᱨ ᱡᱟᱹᱛᱤ ᱥᱟᱪᱟᱨᱦᱮ ᱦᱚᱭᱵᱟᱹᱨᱰᱩ ᱮᱞᱟᱝᱼᱚᱨᱥᱚᱝ (natural disaster-afflicted) ᱱᱟᱜᱟᱨ ᱠᱟᱱᱟ, ᱡᱟᱯᱟᱱ ᱨᱮᱱᱟᱜ ᱴᱚᱠᱭᱚ ᱛᱟᱭᱚᱢ᱾[᱑᱒] ᱮᱱᱛᱮᱨᱮᱦᱚ ᱱᱚᱣᱟ ᱫᱚ ᱥᱟᱢᱟᱝ-ᱠᱚᱧᱮ ᱮᱥᱤᱭᱟ ᱨᱮᱱᱟᱜ ᱡᱟᱹᱛᱤ ᱦᱚᱲᱮᱞ ᱟᱨ ᱠᱤᱥᱟᱹᱬ ᱱᱟᱜᱟᱨ ᱠᱚ ᱢᱩᱫ ᱨᱮ ᱢᱤᱫ ᱱᱟᱜᱟᱨ ᱠᱟᱱᱟ᱾[᱑᱓]

ᱢᱟᱱᱤᱞᱟ
Maynilà
ᱨᱟᱡᱽᱜᱟᱲ ᱟᱨ highly urbanized city
Lungsod ng Maynilà
(ᱢᱟᱱᱤᱞᱟ ᱱᱟᱜᱟᱨ)
Manila skyline day.jpg
Rizal Monument at Dusk.jpg
Allan Jay Quesada- Quiapo Church DSC 0065 The Minor Basilica of the Black Nazarene or Quiapo Church, Manila.JPG
Malacañang Palace (Cropped).jpg
Flag of ᱢᱟᱱᱤᱞᱟ
Flag
ᱚᱯᱷᱤᱥᱤᱭᱟᱞ ᱢᱟᱨᱠᱷᱟ ᱢᱟᱱᱤᱞᱟ
ᱥᱤᱞ
ᱮᱴᱟᱜ ᱧᱩᱛᱩᱢ: Pearl of the Orient[᱑]
ᱡᱚᱥ: Manila, God First
Map of Metro Manila showing the location of the city of Manila
Map of Metro Manila showing the location of the city of Manila
OpenStreetMap
ᱫᱤᱥᱚᱢ Flag of the Philippines.svg ᱯᱷᱤᱞᱤᱯᱟᱭᱤᱱ
ᱴᱚᱴᱷᱟ ᱡᱟᱹᱛᱤᱭᱟᱹᱨᱤ ᱨᱟᱡᱽᱜᱟᱲ ᱴᱚᱴᱷᱟ
Congressional District ᱑ ᱠᱷᱚᱱ ᱖ ᱭᱟᱱ ᱦᱚᱱᱚᱛ, ᱢᱟᱱᱤᱞᱟ
Administrative District ᱑᱖ ᱱᱟᱜᱟᱨ ᱦᱚᱱᱚᱛ
ᱛᱷᱟᱯᱚᱱ ᱑᱓ ᱥᱟᱭ ᱟᱨ ᱞᱟᱦᱟ
Sultanate of Brunei (Rajahnate of Maynila) 1500s
Spanish Manila ᱒᱔ ᱡᱩᱱ ᱑᱕᱗᱑
City Charter ᱓᱑ ᱡᱩᱞᱟᱭ ᱑᱙᱐᱑
Highly Urbanized City ᱒᱒ ᱰᱤᱥᱮᱢᱵᱚᱨ ᱑᱙᱗᱙
Barangays 896
ᱥᱚᱨᱠᱟᱨ[᱒]
 • ᱞᱮᱠᱟᱱ Sangguniang Panlungsod
 • Mayor Francisco "Isko Moreno" Domagoso (NUP/Asenso Manileño)
 • Vice Mayor Dr. Ma. Sheilah "Honey Lacuna" Pangan (NUP/Asenso Manileño)
 • City Representatives
 • City Council
 • Electorate 1,065,149 voters (᱒᱐᱑᱙)
ᱮᱨᱤᱭᱟ [᱓][᱔]
 • City 42.88 ᱠᱤᱢᱤ (16.56 ᱜᱟᱺᱴ ᱢᱟᱭᱤᱞ)
ᱥᱟᱦᱟᱨ • ᱱᱟᱜᱟᱨ 1474.82 ᱠᱤᱢᱤ (569.43 ᱜᱟᱺᱴ ᱢᱟᱭᱤᱞ)
 • ᱱᱟᱜᱟᱨ 619.57 ᱠᱤᱢᱤ (239.22 ᱜᱟᱺᱴ ᱢᱟᱭᱤᱞ)
ᱩᱥᱩᱞ 3.1 m (10.2 sq mi) ᱢᱤᱴᱚᱨ (Bad rounding hereFormatting error: invalid input when rounding ᱯᱷᱩᱴ)
ᱞᱮᱠᱷᱟ ᱡᱚᱠᱷᱟ ᱥᱮᱨᱢᱟ (᱒᱐᱑᱕ ᱦᱚᱲᱞᱮᱠᱷᱟ)[᱕]
 • City ᱑,᱗᱘᱐,᱑᱔᱘
 • ᱰᱮᱱᱥᱤᱴᱤ 41515/ᱠᱤᱢᱤ2 (107520/ᱜᱟᱺᱴ ᱢᱟᱹᱭᱤᱞ)
 • ᱱᱟᱜᱟᱨ ᱒᱒,᱗᱑᱐,᱐᱐᱐[᱖]
 • ᱢᱟᱦᱟᱱᱟᱜᱟᱨ ᱑᱒,᱘᱗᱗,᱒᱕᱓
 • ᱢᱟᱦᱟᱱᱟᱜᱟᱨ ᱰᱮᱱᱥᱤᱴᱤ 20785/ᱠᱤᱢᱤ2 (53830/ᱜᱟᱺᱴ ᱢᱟᱹᱭᱤᱞ)
 • Households ᱔᱐᱙,᱙᱘᱗
Demonym(s) English: Manileño, Manilan;
Spanish: manilense,[᱗] manileño(-a)
Filipino: Manileño(-a), Manilenyo(-a), Taga-Maynila
Economy
 • Income_class special city income class
 • Poverty incidence 5.71% (2015)[᱘]
 • HDI 0.773[᱙]high (2018)
 • Revenue ₱10,154,964,750.07 (2016)
 • GDP US $182.8 billion
Utilities
 • Electricity MERALCO
 • WaterMaynilad (Majority)
Manila Water (Santa Ana and San Andres)
PST (UTC+8)
ᱯᱤᱱ ᱠᱳᱰ +900 – 1-096
PSGC 133900000
IDD : area code  +63 (0)2
Time zone UTC+8 (PST)
Native languages ᱛᱟᱜᱟᱞᱚᱜ
Currency Philippine peso (₱)
ᱣᱮᱵᱽᱥᱟᱭᱤᱴ www.manila.gov.ph

ᱧᱩᱛᱩᱢᱥᱟᱯᱲᱟᱣ

ᱢᱟᱭᱱᱤᱞᱟ (Maynilà), ᱫᱚ ᱱᱟᱜᱟᱨ ᱞᱟᱹᱜᱤᱫ ᱯᱦᱤᱞᱤᱯᱤᱱᱳ ᱧᱩᱛᱩᱢ ᱠᱟᱱᱟ, ᱱᱚᱣᱟ ᱫᱚ ᱢᱟᱭ-ᱱᱤᱞᱟ ᱟᱹᱲᱟᱹ ᱠᱷᱚᱱ ᱦᱮᱡᱽ ᱟᱠᱟᱱᱟ, ᱱᱚᱣᱟ ᱢᱮᱱᱮᱫ ᱫᱚ "ᱡᱟᱦᱟᱨᱮ ᱱᱤᱞ ᱧᱟᱢᱚᱜ-ᱟ"᱾ ᱱᱤᱞᱟ ᱟᱹᱲᱟᱹ ᱥᱚᱝᱠᱨᱤᱛ ᱟᱹᱲᱟᱹ ᱱᱤᱞᱚ ((नील) ᱠᱷᱚᱱ ᱦᱮᱡᱽ ᱟᱠᱟᱱᱟ ᱱᱚᱣᱟ ᱢᱮᱱᱮᱫ ᱫᱚ ᱱᱤᱞ, ᱟᱨᱦᱚ ᱵᱟᱹᱨᱛᱤ ᱞᱮᱠᱟᱛᱮ ᱱᱚᱣᱟ ᱢᱮᱱᱮᱫ ᱫᱚ ᱱᱟᱱᱟᱦᱩᱱᱟᱹᱲ ᱫᱟᱨᱮ ᱡᱟᱦᱟ ᱠᱷᱚᱱ ᱨᱚᱝ ᱩᱰᱩᱜᱟᱜ᱾ ᱢᱟᱭᱞᱤᱱᱟ ᱧᱩᱛᱩᱢ ᱫᱚ ᱟᱹᱛᱩ ᱟᱥᱮᱯᱟᱥᱮ ᱱᱤᱞ ᱟᱨᱡᱟᱣ ᱫᱟᱨᱮ ᱟᱨ ᱵᱟᱝᱠᱷᱟᱱ ᱱᱤᱞ ᱵᱮᱯᱟᱨ ᱴᱟᱶ ᱦᱚᱭᱮ ᱵᱩᱡᱷᱟᱣ ᱦᱚᱪᱚᱭᱟ᱾

ᱱᱟᱜᱟᱢᱥᱟᱯᱲᱟᱣ

ᱚᱛᱱᱚᱜᱥᱟᱯᱲᱟᱣ

 
International Space Station photo of Manila (just left of center) and surrounding cities

ᱮᱥᱤᱭᱟ ᱨᱮᱱᱟᱜ ᱢᱩᱬᱩᱛ ᱚᱛᱦᱟᱥᱟ ᱠᱷᱚᱱ ᱑᱓᱐᱐ ᱠᱤᱞᱳᱢᱤᱴᱟᱨ (᱘᱑᱐ ᱢᱟᱭᱤᱞ) ᱥᱟᱹᱜᱤᱧ ᱞᱩᱡᱚᱱ ᱟᱨᱮ ᱠᱷᱚᱱ ᱯᱟᱪᱮ ᱟᱨ ᱢᱟᱱᱤᱞᱟ ᱫᱚᱨᱭᱟ ᱟᱨᱮ ᱨᱮᱱᱟᱜ ᱥᱟᱢᱟᱝ ᱱᱟᱠᱷᱟ ᱨᱮ ᱱᱚᱣᱟ ᱢᱟᱱᱤᱞᱟ ᱱᱟᱜᱟᱨ ᱢᱮᱱᱟᱜ-ᱟ᱾ ᱢᱟᱱᱤᱞᱟ ᱨᱮᱱᱟᱜ ᱢᱤᱫ ᱢᱟᱨᱟᱝ ᱥᱟᱪᱟᱨᱦᱮ ᱫᱷᱚᱱ ᱫᱚ ᱦᱩᱭᱩᱜ ᱠᱟᱱᱟ ᱱᱚᱰᱮᱱᱟᱜ ᱵᱟᱵᱟᱧᱪᱟᱣ ᱵᱚᱱᱫᱚᱨ (protected harbor) ᱡᱟᱦᱟ ᱪᱮᱛᱟᱱ ᱱᱚᱣᱟ ᱢᱮᱱᱟᱜ-ᱟ, ᱱᱚᱣᱟ ᱫᱚ ᱮᱥᱤᱭᱟ ᱨᱮᱱᱟᱜ ᱥᱮᱨᱟ ᱢᱮᱱᱛᱮ ᱱᱟᱲᱟᱭᱚᱜ-ᱟ᱾ ᱯᱟᱥᱤᱜ ᱜᱟᱰᱟ ᱱᱟᱜᱟᱨ ᱛᱟᱞᱟ ᱛᱮ ᱟᱛᱳ ᱪᱟᱞᱟᱣ ᱟᱠᱟᱱᱟ ᱡᱟᱦᱟ ᱫᱚ ᱱᱚᱣᱟ ᱱᱟᱜᱟᱨ ᱮᱛᱚᱢ ᱟᱨ ᱠᱚᱧᱮ ᱵᱟᱨᱭᱟ ᱦᱟᱹᱴᱤᱝ ᱨᱮᱭ ᱦᱟᱹᱴᱤᱝ ᱟᱠᱟᱫᱟ᱾

 
ᱢᱟᱱᱟᱞᱤ ᱫᱚᱨᱭᱟ ᱨᱮ ᱪᱟᱸᱫᱚ ᱦᱟᱹᱥᱩᱲ

ᱦᱚᱭ ᱦᱤᱥᱤᱫᱥᱟᱯᱲᱟᱣ

Climate data for ᱵᱚᱱᱫᱚᱨ ᱚᱱᱪᱚᱞ, ᱢᱟᱱᱟᱞᱤ (᱑᱙᱘᱑–᱒᱐᱑᱐, extremes ᱑᱘᱘᱕–᱒᱐᱑᱒)
Month Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Year
Record high °C (°F) 36.5
(97.7)
35.6
(96.1)
36.8
(98.2)
38.0
(100.4)
38.6
(101.5)
37.6
(99.7)
36.5
(97.7)
35.6
(96.1)
35.3
(95.5)
35.8
(96.4)
35.6
(96.1)
34.6
(94.3)
38.6
(101.5)
ᱮᱵᱷᱚᱨᱮᱡᱽ ᱪᱮᱛᱟᱱ (Average high) °C (°F) 29.6
(85.3)
30.6
(87.1)
32.1
(89.8)
33.5
(92.3)
33.2
(91.8)
32.2
(90.0)
31.2
(88.2)
30.8
(87.4)
31.0
(87.8)
31.1
(88.0)
30.9
(87.6)
29.8
(85.6)
31.3
(88.3)
Daily mean °C (°F) 26.7
(80.1)
27.4
(81.3)
28.7
(83.7)
30.1
(86.2)
30.0
(86.0)
29.3
(84.7)
28.5
(83.3)
28.3
(82.9)
28.4
(83.1)
28.4
(83.1)
28.0
(82.4)
27.0
(80.6)
28.4
(83.1)
ᱮᱵᱷᱚᱨᱮᱡᱽ ᱞᱟᱛᱟᱨ (Average low) °C (°F) 23.8
(74.8)
24.2
(75.6)
25.3
(77.5)
26.6
(79.9)
26.9
(80.4)
26.4
(79.5)
25.9
(78.6)
25.8
(78.4)
25.7
(78.3)
25.7
(78.3)
25.1
(77.2)
24.2
(75.6)
25.5
(77.9)
Record low °C (°F) 14.5
(58.1)
15.6
(60.1)
16.2
(61.2)
17.2
(63.0)
20.0
(68.0)
20.1
(68.2)
19.4
(66.9)
18.0
(64.4)
20.2
(68.4)
19.5
(67.1)
16.8
(62.2)
15.7
(60.3)
14.5
(58.1)
Average rainfall mm (inches) 17.3
(0.68)
14.2
(0.56)
15.8
(0.62)
23.7
(0.93)
147.2
(5.80)
253.5
(9.98)
420.5
(16.56)
432.4
(17.02)
355.1
(13.98)
234.8
(9.24)
121.7
(4.79)
67.4
(2.65)
᱒,᱑᱐᱓.᱖
(82.82)
Average rainy days (≥ 0.1 mm) 4 3 3 4 10 17 21 21 20 17 12 7 139
Average relative humidity (%) 72 69 67 66 71 76 79 81 80 78 75 74 74
Mean monthly sunshine hours 177 198 226 258 223 162 133 133 132 158 153 152 ᱒,᱑᱐᱕
Source #1: PAGASA[᱑᱔][᱑᱕]
Source #2: Danish Meteorological Institute (sun, 1931–1960)[᱑᱖]

ᱰᱮᱢᱚᱜᱽᱨᱟᱯᱷᱤᱥᱟᱯᱲᱟᱣ

 
Binondo, established in 1594, is the world's oldest Chinatown.
 
People flocking the street market at Plaza Miranda.

᱒᱐᱑᱕ ᱥᱮᱨᱢᱟ ᱦᱚᱲᱞᱮᱠᱷᱟ ᱞᱮᱠᱟᱛᱮ ᱱᱟᱜᱟᱨ ᱨᱮ ᱑,᱗᱘᱐,᱑᱔᱘ ᱜᱟᱱ ᱦᱚᱲ ᱢᱮᱱᱟᱜ ᱠᱚᱣᱟ, ᱡᱟᱦᱟ ᱫᱚ ᱯᱷᱤᱞᱤᱯᱟᱭᱤᱱ ᱨᱮᱱᱟᱜ ᱫᱚᱥᱟᱨ ᱡᱟᱹᱥᱛᱤ ᱦᱚᱲ ᱮᱞ ᱱᱟᱜᱟᱨ ᱮ ᱵᱮᱱᱟᱣ ᱟᱠᱟᱫᱟ᱾ ᱢᱟᱱᱤᱞᱟ ᱫᱚ ᱡᱮᱜᱮᱛ ᱨᱮᱱᱟᱜ ᱥᱟᱱᱟᱢ ᱠᱷᱚᱱ ᱴᱟᱶᱦᱮᱸ ᱦᱚᱲᱮᱞ (densely populated) ᱱᱟᱜᱟᱨ ᱠᱟᱱᱟ᱾ ᱒᱐᱑᱕ ᱥᱮᱨᱢᱟ ᱦᱤᱥᱟᱹᱵᱽ ᱛᱮ ᱱᱚᱰᱮ ᱔᱑,᱕᱑᱕ ᱜᱟᱱ ᱦᱚᱲ ᱢᱤᱫ ᱠᱤᱢᱤ² ᱨᱮ ᱢᱮᱱᱟᱜ ᱠᱚᱣᱟ ᱾

ᱠᱟᱹᱣᱰᱤᱟᱹᱨᱤᱥᱟᱯᱲᱟᱣ

 
Aerial view of Binondo, the city's Chinatown and business district.

ᱢᱮᱱᱤᱞᱟ ᱫᱚ ᱢᱟᱨᱟᱝ ᱨᱮ ᱵᱮᱯᱟᱨ-ᱵᱟᱱᱤᱡᱽ, ᱵᱮᱝᱠ ᱟᱨ ᱵᱤᱢᱟ ᱮᱢᱟᱱ ᱠᱟᱹᱣᱰᱤ ᱞᱮᱱᱫᱮ ᱨᱮᱱᱟᱜ ᱱᱟᱜᱟᱨ ᱠᱟᱱᱟ᱾ ᱱᱚᱰᱮᱱᱟᱜ ᱠᱟᱹᱣᱰᱤᱟᱹᱨᱤ ᱨᱮ ᱫᱚ ᱵᱮᱯᱟᱨ-ᱵᱟᱱᱤᱡᱽ, ᱦᱮᱡᱽᱥᱮᱱ, ᱴᱩᱨᱤᱡᱚᱢ (tourism) ᱮᱢᱟᱱ ᱠᱚᱜᱮ ᱢᱩᱬᱩᱛ-ᱟ᱾

 
The Port of Manila, the chief port of the Philippines.

ᱢᱟᱱᱤᱞᱟ ᱵᱚᱱᱫᱚᱨ, ᱱᱚᱣᱟ ᱫᱚ ᱯᱷᱤᱞᱤᱯᱟᱭᱤᱱ ᱨᱮᱱᱟᱜ ᱢᱟᱨᱟᱝ ᱫᱚᱨᱭᱟ ᱵᱚᱱᱚᱨᱤ ᱠᱟᱱᱟ ᱠᱟᱦᱟ ᱦᱚᱛᱮᱛᱮ ᱢᱟᱱᱤᱞᱟ ᱫᱚ ᱫᱤᱥᱚᱢ ᱨᱮᱱᱟᱜ ᱢᱩᱬᱩᱛ ᱵᱮᱯᱟᱨ ᱛᱟᱞᱢᱟ ᱞᱮᱠᱟᱛᱮ ᱵᱮᱱᱟᱣ ᱟᱠᱟᱱᱟ᱾

ᱞᱟᱠᱪᱟᱨᱥᱟᱯᱲᱟᱣ

ᱥᱚᱨᱠᱟᱨᱥᱟᱯᱲᱟᱣ

ᱥᱮᱪᱮᱫᱥᱟᱯᱲᱟᱣ

ᱟᱨᱦᱚ ᱧᱮᱞ ᱢᱮᱥᱟᱯᱲᱟᱣ

ᱵᱟᱨᱦᱮ ᱡᱚᱱᱚᱲᱥᱟᱯᱲᱟᱣ

ᱥᱟᱹᱠᱷᱭᱟᱹᱛᱥᱟᱯᱲᱟᱣ

  1. "'Pearl of Orient' Stripped of Food; Manila, Before Pearl Harbor, Had Been Prosperous—Its Harbor One, of Best Focus for Two Attacks Osmeña Succeeded Quezon". New York Times. ᱯᱷᱮᱵᱽᱨᱩᱣᱟᱨᱤ 5, 1945. Retrieved ᱢᱟᱨᱪ 3, 2014. Manila, modernized and elevated to the status of a metropolis by American engineering skill, was before Pearl Harbor a city of 623,000 population, contained in an area of fourteen square miles. 
  2. "Cities". Quezon City, Philippines: Department of the Interior and Local Government. Archived from the original on ᱢᱟᱨᱪ 9, 2013. Retrieved ᱱᱚᱵᱷᱮᱢᱵᱚᱨ 30, 2012.  Unknown parameter |url-status= ignored (help)
  3. "An Update on the Earthquake Hazards and Risk Assessment of Greater Metropolitan Manila Area" (PDF). Philippine Institute of Volcanology and Seismology. ᱱᱚᱵᱷᱮᱢᱵᱚᱨ 14, 2013. Archived from the original (PDF) on ᱡᱩᱱ 24, 2016. Retrieved ᱢᱮ 16, 2016.  Unknown parameter |url-status= ignored (help)
  4. "Enhancing Risk Analysis Capacities for Flood, Tropical Cyclone Severe Wind and Earthquake for the Greater Metro Manila Area Component 5 – Earthquake Risk Analysis" (PDF). Philippine Institute of Volcanology and Seismology and Geoscience Australia. Retrieved ᱢᱮ 16, 2016. 
  5. "Philippine Population Density (Based on the 2015 Census of Population)". Philippine Statistics Authority. Retrieved ᱱᱚᱵᱷᱮᱢᱵᱚᱨ 2, 2017. 
  6. ᱪᱷᱟᱸᱪ:Cite webtitle=Demographia World Urban Areas PDF (March 2013)
  7. This is the original Spanish, even used by José Rizal in El filibusterismo.
  8. "PSA releases the 2015 Municipal and City Level Poverty Estimates". Quezon City, Philippines. Retrieved 1 ᱡᱟᱱᱩᱣᱟᱨᱤ 2020. 
  9. Sub-national HDI. "Area Database – Global Data Lab". hdi.globaldatalab.org. 
  10. "Annual Audit Report: City of Manila" (PDF). 2014. Archived from the original on ᱱᱚᱵᱷᱮᱢᱵᱚᱨ 4, 2016. Retrieved ᱱᱚᱵᱷᱮᱢᱵᱚᱨ 4, 2016.  Unknown parameter |url-status= ignored (help)
  11. Frank, Andre G. (1998). ReOrient: Global Economy in the Asian Age . Berkeley: University of California Press. pp. 131. 
  12. Lozada, Bong (ᱢᱟᱨᱪ 27, 2014). "Metro Manila is world's second riskiest capital to live in–poll". Philippine Daily Inquirer. Retrieved ᱮᱯᱨᱤᱞ 9, 2014. 
  13. "Global Metro Monitor". Brookings Institution. ᱡᱟᱱᱩᱣᱟᱨᱤ 22, 2015. Retrieved ᱮᱯᱨᱤᱞ 12, 2017. 
  14. "Port Area Manila Climatological Normal Values". Philippine Atmospheric, Geophysical and Astronomical Services Administration. Archived from the original on 19 ᱥᱮᱯᱴᱮᱢᱵᱚᱨ 2018. Retrieved 17 ᱰᱤᱥᱮᱢᱵᱚᱨ 2019. 
  15. "Port Area Manila Climatological Extremes". Philippine Atmospheric, Geophysical and Astronomical Services Administration. Archived from the original on 19 ᱥᱮᱯᱴᱮᱢᱵᱚᱨ 2018. Retrieved 17 ᱰᱤᱥᱮᱢᱵᱚᱨ 2019. 
  16. Cappelen, John; Jensen, Jens. "Filippinerne – Manila, Luzon" (PDF). Climate Data for Selected Stations (1931–1960) (in Danish). Danish Meteorological Institute. Archived from the original (PDF) on 27 ᱮᱯᱨᱤᱞ 2013. Retrieved 17 ᱰᱤᱥᱮᱢᱵᱚᱨ 2019.