ᱴᱟᱸᱜᱟᱥᱴᱟᱱ (tungsten) ᱥᱮ ᱣᱚᱞᱯᱷᱨᱟᱢ (wolfram) ᱟᱮᱚᱨᱛ ᱥᱟᱨᱱᱤ ᱨᱮᱱᱟᱜ ᱛᱩᱨᱩᱭ ᱟᱜ ᱚᱸᱛᱚᱨᱣᱚᱨᱛᱤ (transition group) ᱨᱮᱱᱟᱜ ᱤᱞᱤᱢᱮᱸᱴ ᱠᱟᱱᱟ᱾ ᱡᱟᱣ ᱟᱵᱚᱥᱛᱟ ᱨᱮᱫᱚ ᱱᱚᱶᱟ ᱨᱮᱱᱟᱜ ᱥᱛᱷᱟᱭᱤ ᱥᱚᱢᱚᱥᱛᱷᱟᱱᱤᱠ ᱧᱟᱢ ᱦᱩᱭ ᱟᱠᱟᱱᱟ, ᱡᱟᱦᱟᱸ ᱫᱚ ᱱᱚᱶᱟ ᱨᱮᱱᱟᱜ ᱦᱟᱢᱟᱞ ᱥᱮ ᱫᱨᱚᱣᱭᱚᱢᱟᱱ ᱮᱞᱮᱞ ᱑᱘᱐, ᱑᱘᱒, ᱑᱘᱓, ᱑᱘᱔, ᱟᱨ ᱑᱘᱗ ᱠᱟᱱᱟ᱾ ᱱᱚᱶᱟ ᱠᱷᱚᱱ ᱮᱴᱟᱜ ᱑᱘᱑, ᱑᱘᱕, ᱟᱨ ᱑᱙᱗ ᱫᱨᱚᱣᱭᱚᱢᱟᱱ ᱮᱞᱮᱞ ᱨᱮᱱᱟᱜ ᱛᱮᱥᱤᱭᱚ ᱫᱷᱚᱨᱢᱤ ᱥᱚᱢᱚᱥᱛᱷᱟᱱᱤᱠ ᱠᱨᱤᱛᱨᱤᱢ ᱥᱟᱫᱷᱟᱱ ᱛᱮ ᱵᱟᱱᱟᱣ ᱦᱩᱭ ᱟᱠᱟᱱᱟ᱾

Tungsten,  74W
Wolfram evaporated crystals and 1cm3 cube.jpg
Tungsten
Pronunciation /ˈtʌŋstən/ (TUNG-stən)
Alternative name wolfram, pronounced: /ˈwʊlfrəm/ (WUUL-frəm)
Appearance grayish white, lustrous
Standard atomic weight Ar, std(W) 183.84(1)[᱑]
Tungsten in the periodic table
Hydrogen Helium
Lithium Beryllium Boron Carbon Nitrogen Oxygen Fluorine Neon
Sodium Magnesium Aluminium Silicon Phosphorus Sulfur Chlorine Argon
Potassium Calcium Scandium Titanium Vanadium Chromium Manganese Iron Cobalt Nickel Copper Zinc Gallium Germanium Arsenic Selenium Bromine Krypton
Rubidium Strontium Yttrium Zirconium Niobium Molybdenum Technetium Ruthenium Rhodium Palladium Silver Cadmium Indium Tin Antimony Tellurium Iodine Xenon
Caesium Barium Lanthanum Cerium Praseodymium Neodymium Promethium Samarium Europium Gadolinium Terbium Dysprosium Holmium Erbium Thulium Ytterbium Lutetium Hafnium Tantalum Tungsten Rhenium Osmium Iridium Platinum Gold Mercury (element) Thallium Lead Bismuth Polonium Astatine Radon
Francium Radium Actinium Thorium Protactinium Uranium Neptunium Plutonium Americium Curium Berkelium Californium Einsteinium Fermium Mendelevium Nobelium Lawrencium Rutherfordium Dubnium Seaborgium Bohrium Hassium Meitnerium Darmstadtium Roentgenium Copernicium Nihonium Flerovium Moscovium Livermorium Tennessine Oganesson
Mo

W

Sg
tantalumtungstenrhenium
Atomic number (Z) 74
Group group 6
Period period 6
Block d-block
Element category   Transition metal
Electron configuration [Xe] 4f14 5d4 6s2[᱒]
Electrons per shell
2, 8, 18, 32, 12, 2
Physical properties
Phase at STP solid
Melting point 3695 K ​(3422 °C, ​6192 °F)
Boiling point 6203 K ​(5930 °C, ​10706 °F)
Density (near r.t.) 19.3 g/cm3
when liquid (at m.p.) 17.6 g/cm3
Heat of fusion 52.31 kJ/mol[᱓][᱔]
Heat of 774 kJ/mol
Molar heat capacity 24.27 J/(mol·K)
 pressure
P (Pa) 1 10 100 1 k 10 k 100 k
at T (K) 3477 3773 4137 4579 5127 5823
Atomic properties
Oxidation states −4, −2, −1, 0, +1, +2, +3, +4, +5, +6 (a mildly acidic oxide)
Electronegativity Pauling scale: 2.36
energies
  • 1st: 770 kJ/mol
  • 2nd: 1700 kJ/mol
Atomic radius empirical: 139 pm
Covalent radius 162±7 pm
Color lines in a spectral range
Spectral lines of tungsten
Other properties
Natural occurrence primordial
Crystal structure ​(bcc)
Body-centered cubic crystal structure for tungsten
Speed of sound thin rod 4620 m/s (at r.t.) (annealed)
Thermal expansion 4.5 µm/(m·K) (at 25 °C)
Thermal conductivity 173 W/(m·K)
Electrical resistivity 52.8 nΩ·m (at 20 °C)
Magnetic ordering paramagnetic[᱕]
Magnetic susceptibility +59.0·10−6 cm3/mol (298 K)[᱖]
Young's modulus 411 GPa
Shear modulus 161 GPa
Bulk modulus 310 GPa
Poisson ratio 0.28
Mohs hardness 7.5
Vickers hardness 3430–4600 MPa
Brinell hardness 2000–4000 MPa
CAS Number 7440-33-7
History
Discovery Carl Wilhelm Scheele (1781)
First isolation Juan José Elhuyar and Fausto Elhuyar (1783)
Named by Torbern Bergman (1781)
Main isotopes of tungsten
Iso­tope Abun­dance Half-life (t1/2) Decay mode Pro­duct
180W 0.12% 1.8×1018 y α 176Hf
181W syn 121.2 d ε 181Ta
182W 26.50% stable
183W 14.31% stable
184W 30.64% stable
185W syn 75.1 d β 185Re
186W 28.43% stable
| references

᱑᱘ ᱜᱟᱱ ᱥᱟᱛᱟᱵᱟᱫᱤ ᱦᱟᱹᱵᱤᱡ ᱴᱟᱸᱜᱟᱥᱴᱟᱱ ᱨᱮᱱᱟᱜ ᱟᱭᱥᱟᱠ ᱴᱤᱱ ᱨᱮ ᱜᱮ ᱭᱚᱜᱤᱠ ᱢᱟᱱᱟᱜ ᱠᱟᱱᱟ᱾ ᱑᱗᱘᱑ ᱨᱮ ᱥᱮᱞᱮ (Scheele) ᱱᱟᱢᱟᱠ ᱥᱟᱬᱮᱤ ᱠᱚ ᱱᱚᱶᱟ ᱠᱚ ᱥᱤᱫᱷ ᱟᱠᱟᱫᱟ ᱡᱮ ᱱᱚᱶᱟ ᱨᱮᱱᱟᱜ ᱟᱭᱥᱟᱠ ᱨᱮ ᱱᱚᱣᱤᱱ ᱮᱥᱤᱰ ᱱᱤᱛᱟᱝ ᱨᱮ ᱢᱮᱱᱟᱜᱼᱟ, ᱡᱟᱦᱟᱸ ᱫᱚ ᱚᱱᱟ ᱴᱟᱸᱜᱟᱥᱴᱟᱱ ᱮᱥᱤᱰ ᱠᱚ ᱢᱮᱛᱟᱣᱟᱜᱼᱟ᱾ ᱱᱚᱶᱟ ᱛᱟᱭᱚᱢ ᱫᱷᱟᱹᱛᱩ ᱛᱭ ᱱᱚᱶᱟ ᱮᱥᱤᱰ ᱨᱮᱱᱟᱜ ᱵᱟᱱᱟᱣ ᱛᱮ ᱦᱚᱸ ᱯᱩᱥᱴᱤ ᱦᱩᱭ ᱟᱠᱟᱱᱟ᱾ ᱱᱚᱶᱟ ᱛᱟᱛᱣᱚ ᱨᱮᱱᱟᱜ ᱵᱟᱨᱭᱟ ᱟᱥᱚᱞ ᱟᱭᱥᱟᱠ ᱢᱮᱱᱟᱜᱼᱟ : ᱥᱮᱞᱟᱭᱤᱴ (Scheelite) ᱟᱨ ᱣᱚᱞᱯᱷᱨᱟᱢᱟᱭᱤᱴ (wolframite) ᱾ ᱥᱮᱞᱟᱭᱤᱴ ᱟᱭᱥᱟᱠ ᱟᱥᱚᱞ ᱛᱮ - ᱠᱮᱞᱥᱤᱭᱟᱢ, (CaWO4), ᱛᱟᱦᱮᱱ ᱠᱟᱱᱟ ᱟᱨ ᱣᱚᱞᱯᱷᱨᱟᱢᱟᱭᱤᱴ ᱨᱮ ᱞᱚᱦ ᱟᱨ ᱢᱮᱹᱜᱽᱱᱤᱡᱽ ᱴᱟᱸᱜᱽᱥᱴᱮᱴ, (FeWO4. MnWO4), ᱨᱮᱱᱟᱜ ᱥᱚᱸᱢᱤᱥᱨᱚᱱ ᱛᱟᱦᱮᱱ ᱠᱟᱱᱟ᱾ ᱴᱟᱸᱜᱟᱥᱴᱟᱱ ᱨᱮᱱᱟᱜ ᱟᱥᱚᱞ ᱮᱛᱚᱭ ᱵᱚᱨᱢᱟ, ᱪᱤᱱ, ᱡᱟᱯᱟᱱ, ᱵᱚᱞᱤᱵᱷᱤᱭᱟ, ᱥᱟᱶ ᱯᱚᱱᱚᱛ ᱟᱢᱮᱨᱤᱠᱟ ᱟᱨ ᱚᱥᱴᱨᱮᱞᱤᱭᱟ

ᱴᱟᱸᱜᱟᱥᱴᱟᱱ ᱟᱭᱥᱟᱠ ᱫᱚ ᱥᱚᱸᱫᱨᱤᱛ ᱠᱟᱛᱮᱜ ᱥᱚᱰᱤᱭᱟᱢ ᱠᱟᱨᱵᱚᱱᱮᱴ, (Na2CO3), ᱥᱟᱶ ᱥᱮᱞᱮᱫ ᱢᱮᱥᱟ ᱠᱟᱛᱮᱜ ᱵᱚᱫᱚᱞ ᱵᱷᱨᱲᱥᱴᱨᱚ ᱨᱮ ᱞᱟᱜᱽᱵᱷᱟᱜᱽ ᱑᱐,᱐᱐᱐ ᱥᱮ ᱦᱟᱹᱵᱤᱡ ᱞᱚᱞᱚ ᱦᱩᱭᱩᱜ ᱠᱟᱱᱟ᱾ ᱱᱚᱶᱟ ᱠᱟᱹᱢᱤ ᱛᱮ ᱥᱚᱰᱤᱭᱟᱢ ᱴᱟᱸᱜᱟᱥᱴᱮᱴ (Na2WO4), ᱵᱟᱱᱟᱜ ᱠᱟᱱᱟ ᱟᱨ ᱞᱚᱦ, ᱢᱮᱸᱜᱱᱤᱡᱽ ᱮᱢᱟᱱ ᱠᱚ ᱟᱯᱱᱟᱨ ᱠᱟᱨᱵᱚᱱᱮᱴ ᱨᱮ ᱵᱚᱫᱚᱞᱚᱜ ᱦᱩᱭᱩᱜ ᱠᱟᱱᱟ᱾ ᱥᱚᱰᱤᱭᱟᱢ ᱴᱟᱸᱜᱟᱥᱴᱮᱴ ᱞᱚᱞᱚ ᱫᱟᱜ ᱨᱮ ᱵᱤᱞᱮᱭ ᱦᱩᱭᱩᱜ ᱠᱟᱱᱟ ᱟᱨ ᱱᱟᱶᱟ ᱞᱮᱠᱟᱱ ᱥᱚᱸᱢᱤᱥᱨᱚᱱ ᱠᱷᱚᱱ ᱡᱩᱫᱟ ᱫᱟᱜ ᱨᱮ ᱵᱤᱞᱮᱭ ᱚᱜ ᱠᱟᱱᱟ᱾ ᱟᱱᱟ ᱛᱟᱭᱱᱚᱢ ᱩᱵᱽᱞᱟᱹᱣ ᱞᱮᱠᱷᱟᱱ ᱦᱟᱭᱰᱨᱚᱠᱞᱚᱨᱤᱠ ᱮᱥᱤᱰ, ᱦᱟᱠᱞᱚ (HCl), ᱨᱮᱱᱟᱜ ᱠᱟᱹᱢᱤ ᱛᱮ ᱴᱟᱸᱜᱟᱥᱴᱟᱱ ᱮᱥᱤᱰ ᱟᱣᱪᱷᱮᱯᱤᱛ ᱦᱩᱭ ᱫᱟᱲᱮᱭᱟᱜ ᱟ, ᱡᱟᱦᱟᱸ ᱫᱚ ᱨᱚᱦᱚᱲ ᱠᱟᱛᱮᱜ ᱡᱩᱞ ᱞᱟᱹᱜᱤᱫ ᱛᱮ ᱥᱟᱥᱟᱝ ᱟᱣᱪᱷᱮᱯᱤᱛ ᱦᱩᱭ ᱦᱩᱭ ᱫᱟᱲᱮᱭᱟᱜ ᱟ, ᱡᱟᱦᱟᱸ ᱫᱚ ᱨᱚᱦᱚᱲ ᱠᱟᱛᱮᱜ ᱡᱩᱸᱰᱤ ᱞᱟᱹᱜᱤᱫ ᱛᱮ ᱥᱟᱥᱟᱝ ᱨᱚᱝ ᱨᱮᱱᱟᱜ ᱴᱟᱸᱜᱟᱥᱴᱟᱱ ᱚᱠᱥᱟᱭᱤᱰ (WO2), ᱧᱟᱢᱚᱜ ᱠᱟᱱᱟ᱾ ᱦᱟᱭᱰᱨᱚᱡᱟᱱ ᱛᱮ ᱚᱠᱥᱟᱭᱤᱰ ᱨᱮᱱᱟᱜ ᱟᱣᱠᱟᱨᱟᱱ ᱠᱷᱚᱱ ᱴᱟᱸᱜᱟᱥᱴᱟᱱ ᱫᱷᱟᱛᱩ ᱥᱟᱯᱲᱟᱣ ᱟᱠᱟᱱᱟ᱾

ᱱᱚᱸᱰᱮ ᱦᱚᱸ ᱧᱮᱞᱢᱮᱥᱟᱯᱲᱟᱣ

ᱦᱤᱞᱤᱭᱟᱢ

ᱥᱟᱹᱠᱷᱭᱟᱹᱛᱥᱟᱯᱲᱟᱣ

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