ᱜᱽᱭᱟᱱᱤ ᱡᱮᱭᱞ ᱥᱤᱝ (᱕ ᱢᱮ ᱑᱙᱑᱖ - ᱒᱕ ᱰᱤᱥᱮᱢᱵᱚᱨ ᱑᱙᱙᱔ [᱒]) ᱟᱜ ᱠᱟᱹᱢᱤᱠᱛᱚ ᱫᱚ ᱒᱕ ᱡᱩᱞᱟᱭ ᱑᱙᱘᱒ ᱠᱷᱚᱱ ᱒᱕ ᱡᱩᱞᱟᱭ ᱑᱙᱘᱗ ᱦᱟᱹᱵᱤᱡ ᱥᱤᱧᱚᱛ ᱨᱤᱱᱤᱡ ᱗ ᱟᱹᱱᱤᱡ ᱫᱤᱥᱚᱢ ᱜᱚᱢᱠᱮᱭ ᱛᱟᱦᱮᱸ ᱠᱟᱱᱟ ᱾ ᱥᱤᱠᱷ ᱫᱷᱚᱨᱚᱢ ᱨᱤᱱᱤᱡ ᱥᱠᱚᱞᱟᱨ ᱯᱚᱧᱡᱟᱵᱽ ᱨᱤᱱᱤᱡ ᱥᱤᱨᱟᱹ ᱢᱚᱱᱛᱨᱤᱭ ᱛᱟᱦᱮᱸ ᱦᱩᱭ ᱟᱠᱟᱱ ᱜᱽᱭᱟᱱᱤ ᱥᱤᱝ ᱫᱚ ᱟᱡᱟᱜ ᱫᱚᱲᱦᱚ ᱟᱸᱥ ᱫᱟᱲᱮ, ᱥᱚᱛ ᱱᱤᱨᱚᱲ ᱨᱮᱱᱟᱜ ᱨᱟᱡᱽᱟᱹᱨᱤᱭᱟᱹᱛ ᱠᱩᱴᱷᱤᱱ ᱦᱚᱨ ᱯᱟᱨᱚᱢ ᱠᱟᱛᱮ ᱑᱙᱘᱒ ᱨᱮ ᱥᱤᱧᱚᱛ ᱨᱤᱱᱤᱡ ᱜᱚᱨᱚᱵᱟᱱ ᱫᱤᱥᱚᱢ ᱜᱚᱢᱠᱮᱭᱟᱜ ᱢᱟᱹᱪᱤ ᱨᱮᱭ ᱫᱩᱲᱩᱵ ᱮᱱᱟ ᱾ ᱑᱙᱘᱗ ᱦᱟᱹᱵᱤᱡ ᱨᱮ ᱟᱡᱟᱜ ᱠᱟᱹᱢᱤᱱᱟᱝ ᱚᱠᱛᱚ ᱨᱮ ᱟᱡ ᱫᱚ 'ᱚᱯᱨᱮᱥᱚᱱ ᱵᱽᱞᱩᱥᱴᱟᱨ' ᱟᱨ ᱤᱱᱫᱤᱨᱟ ᱜᱟᱱᱫᱷᱤ ᱭᱟᱜ ᱜᱚᱡᱮ ᱞᱮᱠᱟᱱ ᱵᱟᱹᱲᱤᱡ ᱦᱟᱞᱟᱛ ᱥᱟᱶ ᱠᱷᱮᱢᱟᱣ ᱦᱩᱭ ᱟᱫᱮᱭᱟ ᱾[᱓] ᱟᱡ ᱫᱚ ᱑᱙᱙᱔ ᱨᱮ ᱢᱤᱫ ᱠᱟᱨ ᱮᱠᱥᱤᱰᱮᱸᱴ ᱛᱮ ᱟᱡᱟᱜ ᱡᱤᱣᱤ ᱵᱟᱹᱛᱤ ᱫᱚ ᱡᱟᱭᱡᱩᱜᱽ ᱞᱟᱹᱜᱤᱫ ᱤᱬᱤᱡ ᱥᱟᱹᱨᱤ ᱮᱱᱟ ᱾

ᱜᱽᱭᱟᱱᱤ ᱡᱮᱭᱞ ᱥᱤᱝ
Giani Zail Singh 1995 stamp of India.jpg
᱗ ᱟᱹᱱᱤᱡ ᱥᱤᱧᱚᱛ ᱨᱤᱱᱤᱡ ᱫᱤᱥᱚᱢ ᱜᱚᱢᱠᱮ
ᱟᱹᱢᱟᱹᱞᱤ ᱨᱮ
᱒᱕ ᱡᱩᱞᱟᱭ ᱑᱙᱘᱒ – ᱒᱕ ᱡᱩᱞᱟᱭ ᱑᱙᱘᱗
ᱢᱟᱨᱟᱝ ᱢᱱᱛᱨᱤ ᱤᱱᱫᱤᱨᱟ ᱜᱟᱱᱫᱷᱤ
ᱨᱟᱡᱤᱵᱽ ᱜᱟᱱᱫᱷᱤ
Vice President ᱢᱚᱦᱚᱢᱢᱚᱫᱽ ᱦᱤᱫᱟᱭᱟᱛᱩᱞᱞᱟᱦ
ᱟᱨ. ᱵᱮᱸᱠᱚᱴᱚᱨᱟᱢᱚᱱ
ᱢᱟᱬᱟᱝ ᱟᱹᱢᱟᱹᱞᱤᱭᱟᱹ ᱱᱤᱞᱚᱢ ᱥᱚᱧᱡᱤᱵᱟ ᱨᱮᱰᱰᱤ
ᱛᱟᱭᱚᱢ ᱟᱹᱢᱟᱹᱞᱤᱭᱟᱹ ᱟᱨ. ᱵᱮᱸᱠᱚᱴᱚᱨᱟᱢᱚᱱ
Minister of Home Affairs
ᱟᱹᱢᱟᱹᱞᱤ ᱨᱮ
᱑᱔ ᱡᱟᱱᱩᱣᱟᱨᱤ ᱑᱙᱘᱐ – ᱒᱒ ᱡᱩᱱ ᱑᱙᱘᱒
ᱢᱟᱨᱟᱝ ᱢᱱᱛᱨᱤ ᱤᱱᱫᱤᱨᱟ ᱜᱟᱱᱫᱷᱤ
ᱢᱟᱬᱟᱝ ᱟᱹᱢᱟᱹᱞᱤᱭᱟᱹ ᱭᱚᱥᱣᱚᱱᱛᱨᱟᱣ ᱪᱚᱣᱚᱱ
ᱛᱟᱭᱚᱢ ᱟᱹᱢᱟᱹᱞᱤᱭᱟᱹ ᱟᱨ. ᱵᱮᱸᱠᱚᱴᱚᱨᱟᱢᱚᱱ
ᱯᱚᱧᱡᱟᱵᱽ ᱨᱤᱱᱤᱡ ᱙ ᱟᱹᱱᱤᱡ ᱥᱤᱨᱟᱹ ᱢᱚᱱᱛᱨᱤ
ᱟᱹᱢᱟᱹᱞᱤ ᱨᱮ
᱑᱗ ᱢᱟᱨᱪ ᱑᱙᱗᱒ – ᱓᱐ ᱮᱯᱨᱤᱞ ᱑᱙᱗᱗
ᱢᱟᱬᱟᱝ ᱟᱹᱢᱟᱹᱞᱤᱭᱟᱹ ᱫᱤᱥᱚᱢ ᱜᱚᱢᱠᱮᱭᱟᱜ ᱟᱹᱨᱤ
ᱛᱟᱭᱚᱢ ᱟᱹᱢᱟᱹᱞᱤᱭᱟᱹ ᱫᱤᱥᱚᱢ ᱜᱚᱢᱠᱮᱭᱟᱜ ᱟᱹᱨᱤ
ᱯᱟᱨᱥᱚᱱᱟᱞ ᱵᱤᱵᱚᱨᱚᱱ
ᱡᱟᱱᱟᱢ ᱡᱚᱨᱱᱮᱞ ᱥᱤᱝ
᱕ ᱢᱮ ᱑᱙᱑᱖(1916-05-05)
ᱥᱚᱸᱫᱷᱣᱟᱱ, Punjab Province, ᱵᱽᱨᱤᱴᱤᱥ ᱤᱱᱰᱤᱭᱟ
(ᱱᱤᱛᱚᱜ ᱫᱚ ᱯᱚᱧᱡᱟᱵᱽ, ᱥᱤᱧᱚᱛ)
ᱜᱩᱨ ᱒᱕ ᱰᱤᱥᱮᱢᱵᱚᱨ ᱑᱙᱙᱔ (᱗᱘ ᱵᱚᱭᱚᱥ)
ᱪᱚᱱᱰᱤᱜᱚᱰ, ᱥᱤᱧᱚᱛ
ᱨᱟᱡᱽᱟᱹᱨᱤ ᱫᱚᱞ ᱤᱱᱰᱤᱭᱟᱱ ᱱᱮᱥᱱᱟᱞ ᱠᱚᱸᱜᱽᱨᱮᱥ
ᱡᱤᱭᱚᱱ ᱥᱚᱦᱮᱫ ᱯᱤᱨᱫᱷᱟᱱ ᱠᱚᱣᱨ (᱑᱙᱑᱙-᱒᱐᱐᱒)[᱑]
ᱦᱚᱯᱚᱱ ᱑ ᱦᱚᱯᱚᱱ, ᱓ ᱦᱚᱯᱚᱱ ᱮᱨᱟ[᱑]
ᱥᱮᱪᱮᱫ ᱟᱠᱷᱲᱟ ᱥᱟᱦᱤᱫᱽ ᱥᱤᱠᱷ ᱢᱤᱥᱚᱱᱟᱨᱤ ᱵᱤᱨᱫᱟᱹᱜᱟᱲ

ᱜᱤᱫᱽᱨᱟᱹ ᱡᱤᱭᱚᱱᱥᱟᱯᱲᱟᱣ

ᱟᱡᱟᱜ ᱡᱟᱱᱟᱢ ᱫᱚ ᱕ ᱢᱮ ᱑᱙᱑᱖ ᱨᱮ ᱯᱷᱚᱨᱤᱫᱽᱠᱳᱴ ᱦᱚᱱᱚᱛ ᱨᱮᱱᱟᱜ ᱥᱚᱸᱫᱷᱚᱵᱟᱱ ᱨᱮ ᱦᱩᱭ ᱞᱮᱱ ᱛᱟᱦᱮᱸᱫ ᱾ ᱟᱨ ᱯᱷᱚᱨᱤᱫᱽᱠᱳᱴ ᱨᱮᱱᱟᱜ ᱠᱳᱴ ᱠᱚᱯᱩᱨᱟ ᱨᱮᱱᱟᱜ ᱥᱩᱨ ᱨᱮ ᱢᱤᱫ ᱦᱩᱰᱤᱧ ᱥᱟᱺᱦᱤᱡ ᱟᱛᱳ, ᱥᱟᱸᱫᱷᱵᱚᱱ ᱨᱮ ᱨᱟᱢᱜᱚᱰᱤᱭᱟ ᱛᱤᱨᱤᱡᱩᱨᱤ ᱠᱤᱥᱟᱱ ᱥᱤᱝ ᱟᱨ ᱟᱭᱳ ᱤᱱᱫᱽᱨᱚ ᱠᱚᱣᱨ ᱟᱜ ᱵᱟᱹᱠᱷᱳᱞ ᱨᱮ ᱦᱩᱭ ᱞᱮᱱ ᱛᱟᱦᱮᱸᱫ ᱾ ᱠᱤᱥᱟᱱ ᱥᱤᱝ ᱫᱚ ᱟᱛᱳ ᱨᱤᱱᱤᱡ ᱠᱟᱴ ᱢᱤᱥᱛᱨᱤᱭ ᱛᱟᱦᱮᱸ ᱠᱟᱱᱟ ᱾ ᱚᱱᱟ ᱥᱟᱶᱛᱮ ᱟᱡ ᱴᱷᱮᱱ ᱫᱚ ᱟᱡᱟᱜ ᱠᱟᱹᱴᱤᱡ ᱠᱟᱹᱴᱤᱡ ᱵᱟᱰᱚᱦᱤ ᱠᱟᱹᱢᱤ ᱠᱚ ᱛᱟᱦᱮᱸ ᱠᱟᱱᱟ ᱾ ᱩᱱᱤ ᱫᱚ ᱢᱤᱫ ᱟᱹᱰᱤ ᱠᱷᱟᱺᱴᱤ ᱥᱤᱠᱷ ᱮ ᱛᱟᱦᱮᱸ ᱠᱟᱱᱟ ᱟᱨ ᱟᱡᱟᱜ ᱚᱱᱟ ᱥᱟᱶᱟᱨ ᱟᱨ ᱜᱩᱱᱢᱟᱹᱱ ᱵᱮᱵᱷᱟᱨ ᱞᱟᱹᱜᱤᱫ ᱫᱤᱥᱚᱢ ᱨᱮ ᱟᱡᱟᱜ ᱵᱷᱟᱹᱜᱤ ᱩᱯᱨᱩᱢ ᱛᱟᱦᱮᱸ ᱠᱟᱱᱟ ᱾ ᱡᱮᱭᱞ ᱥᱤᱝ ᱫᱚ ᱡᱮᱱᱮᱨᱟᱞ ᱧᱩᱛᱩᱢ ᱠᱚ ᱪᱷᱟᱹᱴᱭᱟᱹᱨ ᱞᱮᱫᱮ ᱛᱟᱦᱮᱸᱫ, ᱡᱟᱦᱟᱸ ᱨᱮᱱᱟᱜ ᱢᱮᱱᱮᱛ ᱫᱚ "ᱥᱟᱱᱟᱱᱟᱢ", ᱤᱠᱷᱟᱹᱱ ᱢᱤᱫ ᱡᱩᱣᱟᱹᱱ ᱞᱮᱠᱟᱛᱮ, ᱟᱡ ᱫᱚ ᱯᱷᱚᱨᱤᱫᱽᱠᱳᱴ ᱨᱤᱱᱤᱡ ᱢᱟᱦᱟᱨᱟᱡᱟ ᱟᱜ ᱥᱟᱥᱚᱱ ᱮ ᱵᱤᱨᱳᱫᱷ ᱞᱮᱫ ᱠᱷᱟᱹᱛᱤᱨ ᱟᱹᱰᱤ ᱫᱷᱟᱣ ᱡᱤᱦᱚᱞ ᱪᱟᱞᱟᱣ ᱛᱟᱭᱚᱢ ᱟᱡᱟᱜ ᱯᱩᱭᱞᱩ ᱧᱩᱛᱩᱢ ᱟᱹᱨᱩ ᱠᱟᱛᱮ ᱡᱮᱭᱞ ᱮ ᱫᱚᱦᱚ ᱠᱮᱫ-ᱟ ᱾[᱒]ᱩᱱᱤ ᱫᱚ ᱫᱷᱚᱨᱚᱢ ᱨᱮ ᱥᱤᱠᱷ ᱮ ᱛᱟᱦᱮᱸ ᱠᱟᱱᱟ, ᱩᱱᱤ ᱫᱚ ᱜᱽᱭᱟᱱᱤ ᱨᱮᱱᱟᱜ ᱩᱯᱟᱫᱷᱤ ᱠᱚ ᱮᱢᱟᱦᱟᱫᱮ ᱛᱟᱦᱮᱸᱫ, ᱪᱮᱫᱟᱜ ᱥᱮ ᱩᱱᱤ ᱫᱚ ᱥᱤᱠᱷᱤᱛ ᱟᱨ ᱚᱢᱨᱩᱛᱥᱚᱨ ᱨᱮᱱᱟᱜ ᱥᱚᱦᱤᱫᱽ ᱥᱤᱠᱷ ᱢᱤᱥᱚᱱᱟᱨᱤ ᱵᱤᱨᱫᱟᱹᱜᱟᱲ ᱨᱮ ᱜᱩᱨᱩ ᱜᱽᱨᱚᱸᱛᱷ ᱥᱟᱦᱤᱵᱽ ᱵᱟᱵᱚᱫᱽ ᱛᱮᱭ ᱵᱟᱰᱟᱭ ᱛᱟᱦᱮᱸᱫ ᱾ [᱔]

ᱯᱚᱱᱚᱛ ᱨᱟᱡᱽᱟᱹᱨᱤ ( ᱑᱙᱔᱗ - ᱑᱙᱗᱒ )ᱥᱟᱯᱲᱟᱣ

᱑᱙᱔᱖ ᱨᱮ, ᱫᱷᱚᱨᱚᱢ ᱵᱟᱨᱟᱵᱟᱹᱨᱤ ᱜᱟᱨ ᱥᱟᱶ ᱥᱤᱧᱚᱛ ᱨᱮᱱᱟᱜ ᱵᱮᱱᱟᱣ ᱟᱹᱨᱩ ᱥᱟᱶᱛᱮ, ᱩᱱᱤ ᱫᱚ ᱯᱷᱚᱨᱤᱫᱽᱠᱳᱴ ᱯᱚᱱᱚᱛ ᱨᱤᱱᱤᱡ ᱥᱟᱥᱚᱱᱤᱭᱟᱹ ᱦᱚᱨᱤᱱᱫᱚᱨ ᱥᱤᱝ ᱵᱚᱨᱟᱰ ᱮ ᱵᱤᱨᱩᱫᱷ ᱠᱮᱫᱮᱭᱟ ᱾ ᱟᱨ ᱩᱱᱤ ᱢᱚᱬᱮ ᱥᱮᱨᱢᱟ ᱦᱟᱹᱵᱤᱡ ᱦᱟᱹᱲᱤ ᱠᱟᱛᱮ ᱟᱡ ᱪᱮᱛᱟᱱ ᱨᱮ ᱱᱟᱦᱟᱪᱟᱨ ᱦᱩᱭ ᱮᱱᱟ ᱾ [᱕] ᱩᱱᱤ ᱫᱚ ᱑᱙᱔᱙ ᱨᱮ ᱥᱤᱨᱟᱹ ᱢᱚᱱᱛᱨᱤ ᱜᱽᱭᱟᱱᱤ ᱥᱤᱝ ᱨᱟᱨᱮᱣᱟᱞᱟ ᱞᱮᱠᱟᱛᱮ ᱤᱱᱟᱹ ᱚᱠᱛᱚ ᱨᱮ ᱛᱤᱸᱜᱩ ᱟᱠᱟᱱ ᱯᱚᱴᱤᱭᱟᱞᱟ ᱟᱨ ᱯᱩᱨᱩᱵᱤᱭᱟᱹ ᱯᱚᱧᱡᱟᱵᱽ ᱯᱚᱱᱚᱛ ᱠᱩᱢᱩᱴ ᱨᱤᱱᱤᱡ ᱥᱴᱮᱴ ᱭᱩᱱᱤᱭᱚᱱ ᱢᱚᱱᱛᱨᱤ ᱞᱮᱠᱟᱛᱮ ᱠᱚ ᱦᱚᱦᱚ ᱟᱫᱮᱭᱟ ᱟᱨ ᱛᱟᱭᱚᱢ ᱛᱮ ᱑᱙᱕᱑ ᱨᱮ ᱠᱤᱨᱥᱤ ᱢᱚᱱᱛᱨᱤᱭ ᱵᱮᱱᱟᱣ ᱮᱱᱟ ᱾ ᱓ ᱮᱯᱨᱤᱞ ᱑᱙᱕᱖ ᱠᱷᱚᱱ ᱑᱐ ᱢᱟᱨᱪ ᱑᱙᱖᱒ ᱦᱟᱹᱵᱤᱡ, ᱩᱱᱤ ᱫᱚ ᱢᱤᱫ ᱥᱚᱦᱮᱛ ᱮ ᱛᱟᱦᱮᱸ ᱠᱟᱱᱟ ᱨᱟᱡᱽᱡᱚ ᱥᱚᱵᱷᱟ ᱨᱤᱱᱤᱡ ᱾ [᱖]

ᱯᱚᱧᱡᱟᱵᱽ ᱨᱤᱱᱤᱡ ᱥᱤᱨᱟᱹ ᱢᱚᱱᱛᱨᱤᱥᱟᱯᱲᱟᱣ

ᱡᱮᱭᱞ ᱥᱤᱝ ᱫᱚ ᱑᱙᱗᱒ ᱨᱮ ᱯᱚᱧᱡᱟᱵᱽ ᱨᱤᱱᱤᱡ ᱠᱚᱸᱜᱽᱨᱮᱥ ᱥᱤᱨᱟᱹ ᱢᱚᱱᱛᱨᱤ ᱞᱮᱠᱟᱛᱮ ᱛᱮᱠᱚ ᱵᱟᱪᱷᱚᱱ ᱞᱮᱫᱮᱭᱟ ᱾ [᱗] ᱩᱱᱤ ᱫᱚ ᱟᱹᱰᱤ ᱨᱚᱢᱡᱷᱚᱢ ᱛᱮ ᱫᱷᱚᱨᱚᱢᱮᱛ ᱯᱟᱨᱟᱵᱽ ᱮ ᱥᱟᱯᱲᱟᱣ ᱠᱮᱫ-ᱟ, ᱢᱤᱫ ᱟᱹᱨᱤᱪᱟᱹᱞᱤ ᱥᱤᱠᱷ ᱚᱦᱬᱮ ᱥᱟᱶᱛᱮ ᱥᱟᱢᱟᱱ ᱞᱮᱠᱟᱱ ᱠᱟᱹᱢᱤ ᱠᱚ ᱮᱛᱚᱦᱚᱵ ᱠᱮᱫ-ᱟ ᱾ ᱜᱩᱨᱩ ᱜᱳᱵᱤᱸᱫᱽ ᱥᱤᱝ ᱟᱜ ᱧᱩᱛᱩᱢ ᱛᱮ ᱢᱤᱫ ᱨᱟᱡᱽᱦᱚᱨ ᱠᱚ ᱩᱰᱷᱟᱹᱣ ᱥᱟᱹᱜᱩᱱ ᱠᱮᱫ-ᱟ, ᱟᱨ ᱜᱩᱨᱩᱭᱤᱡ ᱦᱚᱯᱚᱱᱟᱜ ᱧᱩᱛᱩᱢ ᱛᱮᱫᱚ ᱢᱤᱫ ᱟᱹᱛᱩ ᱠᱚ ᱧᱩᱛᱩᱢ ᱠᱮᱫ-ᱟ ᱾ [᱘] ᱩᱱᱤ ᱫᱚ ᱯᱚᱱᱚᱛ ᱨᱤᱱ ᱯᱷᱩᱨᱜᱟᱹᱞ ᱞᱟᱹᱲᱦᱟᱹᱭᱤᱭᱟᱹ ᱠᱚ ᱞᱟᱹᱜᱤᱫ ᱡᱤᱭᱚᱱ ᱵᱷᱩᱨ ᱯᱮᱱᱥᱚᱱ ᱯᱟᱱᱛᱷᱟᱭ ᱵᱮᱱᱟᱣ ᱠᱮᱫ-ᱟ ᱾ ᱩᱱᱤ ᱫᱚ ᱞᱚᱱᱰᱚᱱ ᱠᱷᱚᱱ ᱩᱫᱷᱚᱢ ᱥᱤᱝ ᱟᱜ ᱥᱟᱨᱮᱡᱛᱮᱫ, ᱜᱩᱨᱩ ᱜᱳᱵᱤᱸᱫᱽ ᱥᱤᱝ ᱟᱜ ᱦᱟᱹᱛᱤᱭᱟᱹᱨ ᱥᱟᱲᱟ ᱟᱨ ᱚᱱᱚᱞ ᱠᱚ ᱟᱨ ᱦᱚᱸᱭ ᱯᱟᱨᱥᱟᱞ ᱠᱮᱫ-ᱟ ᱾

ᱛᱟᱞᱢᱟ ᱥᱚᱨᱠᱟᱨᱥᱟᱯᱲᱟᱣ

᱑᱙᱘᱐ ᱨᱮ, ᱡᱮᱭᱞ ᱥᱤᱝ ᱫᱚ ᱗ ᱟᱱᱟᱜ ᱞᱳᱠ ᱥᱚᱵᱷᱟ ᱞᱟᱹᱜᱤᱫ ᱮ ᱵᱟᱪᱷᱚᱱ ᱮᱱᱟ, ᱟᱨ ᱩᱱᱤ ᱫᱚ ᱢᱤᱱᱤᱥᱴᱚᱨ ᱳᱯᱷ ᱦᱚᱢ ᱟᱯᱷᱮᱨ ᱞᱮᱠᱟᱛᱮ ᱤᱱᱫᱤᱨᱟ ᱜᱟᱱᱫᱷᱤ ᱟᱜ ᱢᱚᱱᱛᱨᱤ ᱢᱟᱰᱮᱨ ᱨᱮ ᱥᱮᱞᱮᱫᱚᱜ ᱞᱟᱹᱜᱤᱫ ᱠᱚ ᱵᱟᱦᱟᱞ ᱠᱮᱫᱮᱭᱟ ᱾ [᱓]

ᱥᱤᱧᱚᱛ ᱨᱤᱱᱤᱡ ᱫᱤᱥᱚᱢ ᱜᱚᱢᱠᱮᱥᱟᱯᱲᱟᱣ

᱑᱙᱘᱒ ᱨᱮ, ᱩᱱᱤ ᱫᱚ ᱡᱚᱛᱚ ᱦᱚᱲᱟᱜ ᱦᱮᱸᱥᱟᱹᱨᱤ ᱛᱮ ᱫᱤᱥᱚᱢ ᱜᱚᱢᱠᱮ ᱞᱮᱠᱟᱛᱮ ᱠᱚ ᱧᱩᱢ ᱦᱟᱞᱟᱝ ᱪᱷᱟᱹᱴᱭᱟᱹᱨ ᱞᱮᱫᱮ ᱛᱟᱦᱮᱸᱫ ᱾ ᱢᱤᱰᱤᱭᱟ ᱨᱮ ᱛᱤᱱᱟᱹᱝ ᱜᱟᱱ ᱦᱚᱲ ᱠᱚ ᱟᱹᱭᱠᱟᱹᱣ ᱠᱮᱫ-ᱟ ᱪᱤ ᱫᱤᱥᱚᱢ ᱜᱚᱢᱠᱮ ᱫᱚ ᱢᱤᱫ ᱥᱚᱝ ᱯᱩᱨᱩᱱ ᱦᱚᱲ ᱵᱟᱝ ᱠᱟᱛᱮ ᱤᱱᱫᱤᱨᱟ ᱞᱟᱹᱜᱤᱫ ᱟᱞᱟᱭᱚᱜ ᱦᱚᱲ ᱠᱷᱟᱹᱛᱤᱨ ᱠᱚ ᱵᱟᱪᱷᱚᱱ ᱟᱠᱟᱫᱮ ᱛᱟᱦᱮᱸᱫ ᱾ ᱥᱤᱝ ᱫᱚ ᱟᱡᱟᱜ ᱵᱟᱪᱷᱱᱟᱣ ᱛᱟᱭᱚᱢ ᱮ ᱢᱮᱱ ᱞᱮᱫ-ᱟ ᱪᱤ ᱡᱩᱫᱤ ᱤᱧ ᱨᱤᱱ ᱱᱮᱛᱟ ᱠᱚ ᱢᱮᱱ ᱠᱮᱫ-ᱟ ᱤᱧ ᱫᱚ ᱡᱚᱱᱚᱜ ᱤᱧ ᱥᱟᱵᱽ ᱢᱟ ᱟᱨ ᱢᱤᱫ ᱡᱚᱜ ᱥᱟᱯᱷᱟ ᱠᱟᱹᱢᱤᱭᱟᱹ ᱦᱩᱭᱩᱜ ᱞᱟᱹᱠᱛᱤᱜ ᱠᱟᱱᱟ, ᱛᱚᱵᱮ ᱤᱧ ᱱᱚᱝᱠᱟ ᱜᱮᱧ ᱠᱟᱹᱢᱤ ᱠᱮᱭᱟ ᱾ ᱩᱱᱠᱩ ᱤᱧ ᱫᱤᱥᱚᱢ ᱜᱚᱢᱠᱮ ᱞᱟᱹᱜᱤᱫ ᱠᱚ ᱵᱟᱪᱷᱚᱱ ᱠᱮᱫᱤᱧᱟ ᱾ ᱩᱱᱤ ᱫᱚ ᱒᱕ ᱡᱩᱞᱟᱹᱭ ᱑᱙᱘᱒ ᱨᱮ ᱟᱹᱢᱟᱹᱞᱤ ᱞᱟᱹᱜᱤᱫ ᱠᱤᱨᱤᱭᱟᱹᱭ ᱦᱟᱛᱟᱣ ᱠᱮᱫ-ᱟ ᱾ ᱩᱱᱤ ᱫᱚ ᱱᱚᱶᱟ ᱟᱹᱢᱟᱹᱞᱤ ᱥᱟᱸᱵᱽᱲᱟᱣ ᱟᱠᱟᱫᱤᱡ ᱯᱩᱭᱞᱩ ᱥᱤᱠᱷ ᱮ ᱛᱟᱦᱮᱸ ᱠᱟᱱᱟ ᱾

ᱜᱩᱨ ᱟᱨ ᱩᱱᱩᱭᱦᱟᱹᱨ ᱢᱟᱦᱟᱸᱥᱟᱯᱲᱟᱣ

᱒᱙ ᱱᱚᱵᱷᱮᱢᱵᱚᱨ ᱑᱙᱙᱔ ᱦᱤᱞᱚᱜ, ᱡᱳᱯ ᱥᱤᱝ ᱫᱚ ᱨᱳᱯᱚᱰ ᱦᱚᱱᱚᱛ ᱨᱮᱱᱟᱜ ᱠᱤᱨᱚᱛᱯᱩᱨ ᱥᱟᱦᱤᱵᱽ ᱥᱩᱨ ᱨᱮ ᱢᱤᱫ ᱢᱚᱴᱚᱨ ᱵᱮᱜᱷᱮᱴᱚᱱ ᱨᱮ ᱟᱹᱰᱤ ᱜᱮᱭ ᱜᱷᱟᱹᱞ ᱮᱱᱟ, ᱛᱤᱱ ᱡᱚᱦᱚᱜ ᱥᱚᱲᱚᱠ ᱨᱮᱱᱟᱜ ᱦᱩᱲᱟᱹᱜ ᱯᱟᱦᱴᱟ ᱥᱮᱫ ᱠᱷᱚᱱ ᱯᱟᱨᱚᱢᱚᱜ ᱠᱟᱱ ᱢᱤᱫ ᱴᱟᱨᱟᱠ ᱫᱚ ᱚᱱᱟ ᱠᱟᱨ ᱮ ᱠᱩᱴᱟᱹᱢ ᱠᱮᱫ-ᱟ, ᱡᱟᱦᱟᱸ ᱛᱮ ᱩᱱᱤᱭ ᱥᱟᱸᱜᱷᱟᱨ ᱮᱫ ᱛᱟᱦᱮᱸᱫ ᱾ [᱙][᱑᱐] ᱥᱤᱝ ᱟᱜ ᱫᱚ ᱪᱚᱱᱰᱤᱜᱚᱰ ᱨᱮ ᱡᱤᱣᱤᱵᱟᱹᱛᱤ ᱤᱬᱤᱡ ᱮᱱ ᱛᱟᱭᱟ, ᱡᱟᱦᱟᱸᱨᱮ ᱩᱱᱤᱭᱟᱜ ᱛᱤᱠᱪᱷᱟᱹ ᱑᱙᱙᱔ ᱨᱮ ᱠᱨᱤᱥᱢᱟᱥ ᱦᱤᱞᱚᱜ ᱦᱩᱭ ᱞᱮᱱ ᱛᱟᱦᱮᱸᱫ, ᱡᱟᱦᱟᱸᱭᱟᱜ ᱵᱚᱭᱚᱥ ᱫᱚ ᱗᱘ ᱥᱮᱨᱢᱟ ᱛᱟᱦᱮᱸ ᱠᱟᱱᱟ ᱾ [᱑᱑][᱑᱒] ᱩᱱᱤᱭᱟᱜ ᱜᱩᱨ ᱛᱟᱭᱚᱢ ᱥᱤᱧᱚᱛ ᱥᱚᱨᱠᱟᱨ ᱫᱚ ᱮᱭᱟᱭ ᱢᱟᱦᱟᱸ ᱦᱟᱹᱵᱤᱡ ᱟᱹᱢᱟᱹᱞᱮᱛ ᱫᱩᱠ ᱮ ᱞᱟᱹᱭ ᱥᱚᱫᱚᱨ ᱞᱮᱫ ᱛᱟᱦᱮᱸᱫ ᱾ ᱫᱤᱞᱞᱤ ᱨᱮᱱᱟᱜ ᱨᱟᱡᱽ ᱜᱷᱟᱴ ᱢᱮᱢᱳᱨᱤᱭᱚᱞ ᱨᱮ ᱩᱱᱤᱭᱟᱜ ᱢᱩᱪᱟᱹᱫ ᱥᱩᱥᱟᱹᱨ ᱠᱟᱹᱢᱤ ᱫᱚ ᱥᱟᱹᱛ ᱞᱮᱱ ᱛᱟᱦᱮᱸᱫ ᱾

ᱥᱟᱹᱠᱷᱭᱟᱹᱛᱥᱟᱯᱲᱟᱣ

  1. ᱑.᱐ ᱑.᱑ Hazarika, Sanjoy (26 ᱰᱤᱥᱮᱢᱵᱚᱨ 1994). "Zail Singh, 78, First Sikh To Hold India's Presidency". New York Times. Retrieved 23 ᱚᱜᱚᱥᱴ 2015. 
  2. ᱒.᱐ ᱒.᱑ Obituary: Zail Singh". The Independent. 29 December 1994. Retrieved 2018-22-06.
  3. ᱓.᱐ ᱓.᱑ "Zail Singh, 78, First Sikh To Hold India's Presidency". The New York Times. 26 December 1994. Retrieved 2011-26-10.
  4. "Zail Singh". Encyclopædia Britannica Online.
  5. A.C. Aurora, "Punjab Riyasti Praja Mandal", The Encyclopedia of Sikhism, ed. Harbans Singh, Vol. III, Patiala, India, Punjabi University, 1997, p. 278.
  6. Rajya Sabha member
  7. Sangat Singh, The Sikhs in History, New Delhi, Uncommon Books, 1999, pp. 350–54; Khushwant Singh, A History of the Sikhs, Volume II: 1839–2004, New Delhi, Oxford University Press, pp. 315–17.
  8. Khushwant Singh, A History of the Sikhs, Volume II: 1839–2004, New Delhi, Oxford University Press, 2004, p. 355.
  9. "Zail Singh's death: RI for truck driver". The Hindu. 7 ᱰᱤᱥᱮᱢᱵᱚᱨ 2000. Retrieved 16 ᱥᱮᱯᱴᱮᱢᱵᱚᱨ 2016. 
  10. "Giani Zail Singh's widow dead". The Tribune. 12 ᱢᱮ 2002. Retrieved 16 ᱥᱮᱯᱴᱮᱢᱵᱚᱨ 2016. 
  11. "Zail Singh dies after crash". The Washington Post. 26 ᱰᱤᱥᱮᱢᱵᱚᱨ 1994. Retrieved 16 ᱥᱮᱯᱴᱮᱢᱵᱚᱨ 2016. 
  12. "Zail Singh dies after car crash". Independent. 26 ᱰᱤᱥᱮᱢᱵᱚᱨ 1994. Retrieved 16 ᱥᱮᱯᱴᱮᱢᱵᱚᱨ 2016. 

ᱵᱟᱦᱨᱮ ᱡᱚᱱᱚᱲᱥᱟᱯᱲᱟᱣ