ᱥᱚᱱᱤᱭᱟ ᱜᱟᱱᱫᱷᱤ (ᱡᱟᱱᱟᱢ ᱙ ᱰᱤᱥᱮᱢᱵᱚᱨ ᱑᱙᱔᱖) ᱢᱤᱫ ᱥᱤᱧᱚᱛᱤᱭᱟᱹ ᱨᱟᱡᱽᱱᱮᱛᱟ ᱟᱨ ᱨᱟᱡᱤᱵᱽ ᱜᱟᱱᱫᱷᱤᱭᱤᱡ ᱫᱷᱚᱨᱚᱢ ᱮᱨᱟ ᱠᱟᱱᱟᱭ ᱾ ᱨᱟᱡᱤᱵᱽ ᱜᱟᱱᱫᱷᱤ ᱥᱟᱶ ᱵᱟᱯᱞᱟᱜ ᱢᱟᱬᱟᱝ ᱨᱮᱫᱚ ᱩᱱᱤᱭᱟᱜ ᱧᱩᱛᱩᱢ ᱛᱟᱦᱮᱸ ᱠᱟᱱᱟ ᱮᱸᱴᱚᱱᱤᱭᱳ ᱢᱟᱭᱱᱚ

ᱥᱚᱱᱤᱭᱟ ᱜᱟᱱᱫᱷᱤ
Sonia Gandhi (cropped).jpg
Chairperson of the National Advisory Council
ᱟᱹᱢᱟᱹᱞᱤ ᱨᱮ
29 March 2010 – 25 May 2014
ᱢᱟᱬᱟᱝ ᱟᱹᱢᱟᱹᱞᱤᱭᱟᱹ Position reestablished
ᱟᱹᱢᱟᱹᱞᱤ ᱨᱮ
4 June 2004 – 23 March 2006
ᱢᱟᱬᱟᱝ ᱟᱹᱢᱟᱹᱞᱤᱭᱟᱹ Position established
ᱛᱟᱭᱚᱢ ᱟᱹᱢᱟᱹᱞᱤᱭᱟᱹ Position abolished
Chairperson of the United Progressive Alliance
Assumed office
16 May 2004
ᱢᱟᱬᱟᱝ ᱟᱹᱢᱟᱹᱞᱤᱭᱟᱹ Position established
ᱯᱟᱨᱥᱮᱛ ᱵᱷᱟᱨᱚᱛᱤᱭᱟᱹ ᱱᱮᱥᱱᱟᱞ ᱠᱚᱸᱜᱨᱮᱥ
Assumed office
14 March 1998
ᱢᱟᱬᱟᱝ ᱟᱹᱢᱟᱹᱞᱤᱭᱟᱹ ᱥᱤᱛᱟᱨᱟᱢ ᱠᱮᱥᱨᱤ
Leader of the Opposition
ᱟᱹᱢᱟᱹᱞᱤ ᱨᱮ
19 March 1998 – 22 May 2004
ᱢᱟᱬᱟᱝ ᱟᱹᱢᱟᱹᱞᱤᱭᱟᱹ ᱥᱚᱨᱚᱫᱽ ᱯᱟᱣᱟᱨ
ᱛᱟᱭᱚᱢ ᱟᱹᱢᱟᱹᱞᱤᱭᱟᱹ ᱮᱞ. ᱠᱮ. ᱟᱰᱣᱟᱱᱤ
leader Parliament
for Rae Bareli
Assumed office
17 May 2004
ᱢᱟᱬᱟᱝ ᱟᱹᱢᱟᱹᱞᱤᱭᱟᱹ ᱥᱚᱛᱤᱥ ᱥᱚᱨᱢᱟ
Member of Parliament
for Amethi
ᱟᱹᱢᱟᱹᱞᱤ ᱨᱮ
10 October 1999 – 17 May 2004
ᱢᱟᱬᱟᱝ ᱟᱹᱢᱟᱹᱞᱤᱭᱟᱹ ᱥᱚᱧᱡᱚᱭ ᱥᱤᱝ
ᱛᱟᱭᱚᱢ ᱟᱹᱢᱟᱹᱞᱤᱭᱟᱹ ᱨᱟᱦᱩᱞ ᱜᱟᱱᱫᱷᱤ
ᱯᱟᱨᱥᱚᱱᱟᱞ ᱵᱤᱵᱚᱨᱚᱱ
ᱡᱟᱱᱟᱢ Edvige Antonia Albina Màino
᱙ ᱰᱤᱥᱮᱢᱵᱚᱨ ᱑᱙᱔᱖ (1946-12-09) (᱗᱓ ᱥᱮᱨᱢᱟ)
ᱞᱩᱥᱤᱭᱟᱱᱟ, ᱵᱷᱮᱱᱮᱴᱳ, ᱤᱴᱟᱞᱤ
ᱨᱟᱡᱽᱟᱹᱨᱤ ᱫᱚᱞ ᱵᱷᱟᱨᱚᱛᱤᱭᱟ. ᱱᱮᱥᱱᱟᱞ ᱠᱚᱸᱜᱨᱮᱥ
ᱮᱴᱟᱜ ᱨᱟᱡᱽᱟᱹᱨᱤ
ᱥᱟᱹᱜᱟᱹᱭ
United Front (᱑᱙᱙᱖–᱒᱐᱐᱔)
United Progressive Alliance (᱒᱐᱐᱔–present)
ᱡᱤᱭᱚᱱ ᱥᱚᱦᱮᱫ ᱨᱟᱡᱤᱵᱽ ᱜᱟᱱᱫᱷᱤ (᱑᱙᱖᱙–᱑᱙᱙᱑)
ᱦᱚᱯᱚᱱ ᱨᱟᱦᱩᱞ
ᱯᱨᱤᱭᱚᱝᱠᱟ
ᱚᱲᱟᱜ ᱑᱐ ᱡᱚᱱᱯᱚᱛᱷ, ᱱᱟᱣᱟ ᱫᱤᱞᱞᱤ
ᱥᱮᱪᱮᱫ ᱟᱠᱷᱲᱟ ᱵᱮᱞ ᱮᱡᱩᱠᱮᱥᱳᱱᱟᱞ ᱴᱨᱩᱥᱴ
ᱫᱷᱚᱨᱚᱢ ᱨᱳᱢᱟᱱ ᱠᱮᱛᱷᱚᱞᱤᱠ ᱫᱷᱚᱨᱚᱢ[᱑][᱒][᱓]
ᱥᱩᱦᱤ ᱥᱚᱱᱤᱭᱟ ᱜᱟᱱᱫᱷᱤ's signature
ᱣᱮᱵᱽᱥᱟᱭᱤᱴ ᱥᱚᱱᱤᱭᱟ ᱜᱟᱱᱫᱷᱤ

ᱱᱩᱭ ᱫᱚ ᱵᱷᱟᱨᱚᱛᱤᱭᱟᱹ ᱱᱮᱥᱱᱟᱞ ᱠᱚᱸᱜᱨᱮᱥ ᱨᱤᱱᱤᱡ ᱯᱟᱨᱥᱮᱛ ᱮ ᱛᱟᱦᱮᱸ ᱠᱟᱱᱟ ᱾ ᱱᱤᱛᱚᱜ ᱫᱚ ᱩᱱᱤ ᱨᱟᱭᱵᱚᱨᱮᱞᱤ, ᱩᱛᱚᱨ ᱯᱨᱚᱫᱮᱥ ᱨᱤᱱᱤᱡ ᱥᱟᱸᱥᱚᱫᱽ ᱠᱟᱱᱟᱭ ᱟᱨ ᱚᱱᱟ ᱥᱟᱶ ᱛᱮᱜᱮ ᱩᱱᱤ ᱫᱚ ᱑᱕ ᱟᱱᱟᱜ ᱞᱳᱠ ᱥᱚᱵᱷᱟ ᱨᱮ ᱠᱷᱟᱹᱞᱤ ᱥᱩᱢᱩᱝ ᱵᱷᱟᱨᱚᱛᱤᱭᱟᱹ ᱱᱮᱥᱱᱟᱞ ᱠᱚᱸᱜᱨᱮᱥ ᱥᱩᱢᱩᱝ ᱫᱚ ᱵᱟᱝ ᱜᱮ ᱭᱩ.ᱯᱤ.ᱮ.(UPA) ᱨᱤᱱᱤᱡ ᱦᱚᱸ ᱢᱩᱠᱷᱤᱭᱟᱹ ᱠᱟᱱᱟᱭ ᱾ ᱱᱩᱭ ᱫᱚ ᱑᱔ ᱟᱱᱟᱜ ᱞᱳᱠ ᱥᱚᱵᱷᱟ ᱨᱮᱦᱚᱸ UPA ᱨᱤᱱᱤᱡ ᱯᱟᱨᱥᱮᱛ ᱮ ᱛᱟᱦᱮᱸ ᱠᱟᱱᱟ ᱾ ᱢᱟᱹᱱᱤᱡ ᱜᱟᱱᱫᱷᱤ ᱫᱚ ᱠᱚᱸᱜᱨᱮᱥ ᱨᱤᱱᱤᱡ ᱑᱓᱒ ᱵᱚᱨᱥᱚ ᱨᱮᱭᱟᱜ ᱱᱟᱜᱟᱢ ᱨᱮ ᱡᱚᱛᱚ ᱠᱷᱚᱱ ᱵᱟᱹᱲᱛᱤ ᱚᱠᱛᱚ ᱫᱷᱟᱹᱵᱤᱡ ᱛᱟᱦᱮᱸ ᱟᱠᱟᱱ ᱯᱟᱨᱥᱮᱛ ᱠᱟᱱᱟᱭ (᱑᱙᱙᱘-᱒᱐᱑᱗) ᱾

ᱟᱯᱚᱱᱮᱛ ᱡᱤᱭᱚᱱᱥᱟᱯᱲᱟᱣ

ᱥᱚᱱᱤᱭᱟ ᱟᱜ ᱡᱟᱱᱟᱢ ᱫᱚ ᱵᱮᱱᱮᱛᱳ, ᱤᱴᱟᱞᱤ ᱨᱮᱭᱟᱜ ᱴᱚᱴᱷᱟ ᱵᱮᱥᱮᱸᱡᱟ ᱠᱷᱚᱱ ᱒᱐ ᱠᱤ. ᱢᱤ. ᱥᱟᱺᱜᱤᱧ ᱨᱮ ᱢᱮᱱᱟᱜ ᱢᱤᱫ ᱦᱩᱰᱤᱧ ᱥᱟᱺᱦᱤᱡ ᱟᱹᱛᱩ ᱞᱩᱥᱤᱭᱟᱱᱟ ᱨᱮ ᱦᱩᱭ ᱞᱮᱱᱟ ᱾ ᱵᱟᱯᱞᱟᱜ ᱢᱟᱬᱟᱝ ᱨᱮᱭᱟᱜ ᱩᱱᱤᱭᱟᱜ ᱧᱩᱛᱩᱢ ᱫᱚ ᱮᱸᱴᱚᱱᱤᱭᱳ ᱢᱟᱭᱱᱚ ᱛᱟᱦᱮᱸ ᱠᱟᱱᱟ ᱾ ᱟᱡ ᱵᱟᱵᱟᱦᱟᱜ ᱧᱩᱛᱩᱢ ᱫᱚ ᱥᱴᱮᱯᱷᱤᱱᱳ ᱢᱟᱭᱱᱳ ᱢᱤᱫ ᱯᱷᱮᱥᱤᱥᱴ ᱯᱟᱹᱭᱠᱚᱭ ᱛᱟᱦᱮᱸ ᱠᱟᱱᱟ ᱡᱟᱦᱟᱸᱭᱟᱜ ᱜᱩᱨ ᱫᱚ ᱑᱙᱘᱓ ᱥᱟᱞᱮᱨᱮ ᱦᱩᱭ ᱮᱱᱟ ᱾ ᱩᱱᱤᱭᱤᱡ ᱡᱟᱱᱟᱢ ᱟᱭᱳ ᱫᱚ ᱯᱚᱣᱞᱳ ᱢᱟᱭᱱᱳ ᱢᱮᱱᱛᱮ ᱧᱩᱛᱩᱢ ᱛᱟᱦᱮᱸ ᱠᱟᱱᱟ ᱾ ᱟᱡ ᱨᱤᱱ ᱫᱚ ᱵᱟᱨᱮᱭᱟ ᱠᱩᱲᱤ ᱵᱚᱭᱦᱟ ᱠᱤᱱ ᱛᱟᱦᱮᱸ ᱠᱟᱱᱟ ᱾ ᱩᱱᱤᱭᱟᱜ ᱜᱤᱫᱽᱨᱟᱹ ᱡᱤᱭᱚᱱ ᱫᱚ ᱴᱩᱨᱤᱱ, ᱤᱴᱟᱞᱤ ᱠᱷᱚᱱ ᱘ ᱠᱤ. ᱢᱤ. ᱥᱟᱺᱜᱤᱧ ᱨᱮ ᱢᱮᱱᱟᱜ ᱟᱨᱵᱳᱥᱟᱱᱳ ᱨᱮ ᱠᱷᱮᱢᱟᱣ ᱞᱮᱱᱟ ᱾ ᱑᱙᱖᱔ ᱥᱟᱞᱮᱨᱮ ᱩᱱᱤ ᱫᱚ ᱠᱮᱸᱵᱨᱤᱡᱽ ᱡᱮᱜᱮᱛ ᱵᱤᱨᱫᱟᱹᱜᱟᱲ ᱨᱮ ᱵᱮᱞ ᱥᱮᱱᱮᱪᱮᱫ ᱢᱩᱨᱟᱹᱭ ᱨᱮᱭᱟᱜ ᱯᱟᱹᱨᱥᱤ ᱟᱥᱲᱟ ᱨᱮ ᱤᱸᱜᱽᱞᱤᱥ ᱯᱟᱹᱨᱥᱤ ᱯᱟᱲᱦᱟᱣᱜ ᱞᱟᱹᱜᱤᱫ ᱮ ᱥᱮᱱ ᱞᱮᱱᱟ ᱡᱟᱦᱟᱸ ᱨᱮᱫᱚ ᱨᱟᱡᱤᱵᱽ ᱜᱟᱱᱫᱷᱤ ᱥᱟᱶ ᱮ ᱧᱟᱯᱟᱢ ᱮᱱᱟ ᱡᱟᱦᱟᱸᱭ ᱫᱚ ᱤᱱᱟᱹ ᱚᱠᱛᱚ ᱫᱚ ᱴᱨᱤᱱᱤᱴᱤ ᱵᱤᱨᱫᱟᱹᱜᱟᱲ ᱠᱮᱸᱵᱨᱤᱡᱽ ᱨᱮᱭ ᱯᱟᱲᱦᱟᱣᱜ ᱠᱟᱱ ᱛᱟᱦᱮᱸᱫ ᱾ ᱱᱩᱠᱤᱱ ᱑᱙᱖᱘ ᱥᱟᱞᱮ ᱨᱮᱠᱚᱱ ᱵᱟᱯᱞᱟ ᱮᱱᱟ ᱟᱨ ᱤᱱᱟᱹ ᱛᱟᱭᱚᱢ ᱵᱷᱟᱨᱚᱛ ᱠᱤᱱ ᱨᱩᱣᱟᱹᱲ ᱦᱮᱡ ᱠᱟᱛᱮ ᱱᱚᱰᱮ ᱠᱤᱱ ᱛᱟᱦᱮᱸ ᱮᱱᱟ ᱾ ᱨᱟᱡᱤᱵᱽ ᱜᱟᱱᱫᱷᱤ ᱥᱟᱶ ᱵᱟᱯᱞᱟ ᱠᱟᱛᱮ ᱩᱱᱤ ᱥᱟᱶ ᱟᱹᱰᱤ ᱚᱠᱛᱚᱭ ᱛᱟᱦᱮᱸ ᱮᱱ ᱛᱟᱭᱚᱢ ᱩᱱᱤ ᱑᱙᱘᱓ ᱥᱟᱞᱮᱨᱮ ᱵᱷᱟᱨᱚᱛᱤᱭᱟᱹ ᱱᱟᱜᱟᱨᱮᱛ (citizenship) ᱮ ᱟᱯᱱᱟᱨ ᱠᱮᱫᱼᱟ ᱾[᱔] ᱩᱱᱤ ᱨᱤᱱ ᱫᱚ ᱵᱟᱨᱮᱭᱟ ᱦᱚᱯᱚᱱ, ᱢᱤᱫ ᱫᱚ ᱠᱚᱲᱟ ᱨᱟᱦᱩᱞ ᱜᱟᱱᱫᱷᱤ ᱟᱨ ᱫᱚᱥᱟᱨ ᱫᱚ ᱠᱩᱲᱤ ᱯᱨᱤᱭᱚᱝᱠᱟ ᱵᱟᱰᱨᱟ ᱢᱮᱱᱛᱮ ᱧᱩᱛᱩᱢ ᱛᱟᱹᱠᱤᱱ ᱾

ᱨᱟᱡᱽ-ᱟᱹᱨᱤ ᱡᱤᱭᱚᱱᱥᱟᱯᱲᱟᱣ

ᱟᱡᱤᱡ ᱡᱤᱛᱟᱹ ᱨᱟᱡᱤᱵᱽ ᱜᱟᱱᱫᱷᱤ ᱠᱚ ᱜᱚᱡ ᱠᱮᱫᱮ ᱛᱟᱭᱚᱢ ᱠᱚᱸᱜᱨᱮᱥ ᱨᱤᱱ ᱢᱟᱨᱟᱝ ᱱᱮᱛᱟ ᱠᱚᱫᱚ ᱥᱚᱱᱤᱭᱟ ᱵᱟᱝ ᱠᱩᱞᱤ ᱠᱟᱛᱮ ᱜᱮ ᱩᱱᱤ ᱠᱚᱸᱜᱨᱮᱥ ᱯᱟᱨᱴᱤ ᱨᱤᱱᱤᱡ ᱯᱟᱨᱥᱮᱛ ᱵᱮᱱᱟᱣ ᱮ ᱨᱮᱭᱟᱜ ᱠᱚ ᱴᱷᱟᱹᱣᱠᱟᱹ ᱠᱮᱫᱼᱟ ᱾ ᱤᱠᱷᱟᱹᱱ ᱥᱚᱱᱤᱭᱟ ᱫᱚ ᱱᱚᱣᱟ ᱵᱟᱭ ᱟᱯᱱᱟᱨ ᱞᱮᱫᱼᱟ ᱟᱨ ᱨᱟᱡᱽ-ᱟᱹᱨᱤ ᱟᱨ ᱨᱟᱡᱽ-ᱟᱹᱨᱤᱭᱟᱹ ᱠᱚ ᱛᱩᱞᱩᱡ ᱟᱡᱟᱜ ᱦᱤᱨᱠᱟᱹ ᱟᱨ ᱵᱟᱹᱯᱟᱹᱛᱟᱹᱛ ᱱᱚᱣᱟ ᱟᱹᱲᱟᱹ ᱛᱮᱭ ᱥᱚᱫᱚᱨ ᱠᱮᱫᱼᱟ ᱫᱚ, "ᱤᱧ ᱤᱧ ᱨᱤᱱ ᱜᱤᱫᱽᱨᱟᱹ ᱠᱚᱠᱚᱭ ᱡᱩᱜᱤ ᱥᱟᱡᱟᱣᱜ ᱤᱧ ᱧᱮᱞ ᱠᱚᱣᱟ, ᱤᱠᱷᱟᱹᱱ ᱤᱧ ᱨᱟᱡᱽ-ᱟᱹᱨᱤ ᱨᱮ ᱡᱟᱸᱜᱟ ᱦᱚᱸ ᱵᱟᱹᱧ ᱫᱚᱦᱚᱭᱟ ᱾" ᱟ.ᱰᱤ ᱚᱠᱛᱚ ᱫᱷᱟᱹᱵᱤᱡ ᱨᱟᱡᱽ-ᱟᱹᱨᱤ ᱨᱮ ᱡᱟᱸᱜᱟ ᱵᱟᱝ ᱫᱚᱦᱚ ᱠᱟᱛᱮ ᱩᱱᱤ ᱟᱡ ᱨᱤᱱ ᱦᱚᱯᱚᱱ ᱟᱱ ᱦᱚᱯᱚᱱ ᱮᱨᱟ ᱡᱚᱜᱟᱣ ᱡᱚᱛᱚᱱ ᱦᱟᱨᱟ ᱨᱮ ᱟᱡᱟᱜ ᱫᱷᱮᱭᱟᱱ ᱮ ᱫᱚᱦᱚ ᱠᱮᱫᱼᱟ ᱾ ᱦᱟᱱᱛᱮ ᱯᱤ. ᱵᱤ. ᱱᱚᱨᱚᱥᱤᱝᱦᱚᱨᱟᱣ ᱟᱜ ᱢᱟᱨᱟᱝ ᱢᱚᱱᱛᱨᱤ ᱚᱠᱛᱚ ᱛᱟᱭᱚᱢ ᱠᱚᱸᱜᱨᱮᱥ ᱑᱙᱙᱖ ᱨᱮ ᱡᱮᱱᱮᱨᱟᱞ ᱮᱞᱮᱠᱥᱳᱱ ᱦᱚᱸᱭ ᱦᱟᱨᱟᱣ ᱮᱱᱟ ᱾ ᱡᱟᱦᱟᱸ ᱠᱷᱟᱹᱛᱤᱨ ᱠᱚᱸᱜᱨᱮᱥ ᱨᱤᱱ ᱱᱮᱛᱟ ᱠᱚᱫᱚ ᱟᱨ ᱦᱚᱸ ᱱᱮᱦᱨᱩ-ᱜᱟᱱᱫᱷᱤ ᱜᱷᱟᱨᱚᱸᱡᱽ ᱨᱤᱱ ᱡᱟᱦᱟᱸᱭ ᱥᱚᱦᱮᱛ ᱟᱜ ᱜᱮ ᱞᱟᱹᱠᱛᱤ ᱞᱮᱠᱟ ᱠᱚ ᱟᱹᱭᱠᱟᱹᱣ ᱠᱮᱫᱼᱟ ᱾ ᱩᱱᱠᱩᱣᱟᱜ ᱫᱚᱵᱟᱣ ᱨᱮ ᱥᱚᱱᱤᱭᱟ ᱜᱟᱱᱫᱷᱤ ᱫᱚ ᱑᱙᱙᱗ ᱥᱟᱞᱮᱨᱮ ᱠᱚᱞᱠᱟᱛᱟ ᱨᱮᱭᱟᱜ ᱯᱞᱮᱱᱚᱨᱤ ᱥᱮᱥᱚᱱ ᱨᱮ ᱠᱚᱸᱜᱨᱮᱥ ᱟᱜ ᱯᱨᱟᱭᱢᱮᱨᱤ ᱢᱮᱢᱵᱚᱨᱥᱤᱯ ᱮ ᱦᱟᱛᱟᱣ ᱠᱮᱫᱼᱟ ᱟᱨ ᱚᱱᱟ ᱨᱮᱭᱟᱜ ᱖᱒ ᱢᱟᱦᱟᱸ ᱵᱷᱤᱛᱨᱤ ᱨᱤ ᱑᱙᱙᱗ ᱥᱟᱞᱮᱨᱮ ᱠᱚᱸᱜᱨᱮᱥ ᱤᱡ ᱯᱟᱨᱥᱮᱛ ᱞᱮᱠᱟ ᱛᱮᱭ ᱵᱟᱪᱷᱚᱱ ᱮᱱᱟ ᱾ ᱩᱱᱤ ᱥᱚᱨᱠᱟᱨ ᱵᱮᱱᱟᱣ ᱞᱟᱹᱜᱤᱫ ᱮ ᱨᱤᱠᱟᱹ ᱞᱮᱜᱼᱟ ᱤᱠᱷᱟᱹᱱ ᱪᱮᱫ ᱚᱨᱡᱚ ᱦᱚᱸ ᱵᱟᱭ ᱧᱟᱢ ᱞᱮᱫᱼᱟ ᱾ ᱨᱟᱡᱽ-ᱟᱹᱨᱤ ᱨᱮ ᱡᱟᱸᱜᱟᱭ ᱫᱚᱦᱚ ᱠᱮᱫ ᱛᱟᱭᱚᱢ ᱩᱱᱤ ᱮᱴᱟᱜ ᱫᱤᱥᱚᱢ ᱨᱮᱭ ᱡᱟᱱᱟᱢ ᱟᱠᱟᱱ ᱨᱮᱭᱟᱜ ᱠᱟᱛᱷᱟ ᱠᱚ ᱨᱟᱠᱟᱵ ᱠᱮᱫᱼᱟ ᱾ ᱩᱱᱤ ᱦᱤᱱᱫᱤ ᱯᱟᱹᱨᱥᱤ ᱨᱮ ᱞᱤᱪᱟᱹᱲ ᱨᱮᱭᱟᱜ ᱦᱚᱸ ᱠᱟᱛᱷᱟ ᱠᱚ ᱫᱚᱦᱚ ᱠᱮᱫᱼᱟ ᱾ ᱜᱷᱟᱨᱚᱸᱡᱽ ᱵᱤᱵᱟᱹᱫᱽ ᱨᱮᱭᱟᱜ ᱦᱚᱸ ᱟᱡ ᱪᱮᱛᱟᱱ ᱫᱳᱥ ᱞᱟᱫᱮ ᱮᱱᱟ ᱤᱠᱷᱟᱹᱱ ᱠᱚᱸᱜᱨᱮᱥᱤᱭᱟᱹ ᱠᱚ ᱩᱱᱤ ᱮᱠᱞᱟ ᱛᱤᱥ ᱦᱚᱸ ᱵᱟᱠᱚ ᱵᱟᱹᱜᱤ ᱟᱫᱮᱭᱟ ᱟᱨ ᱱᱚᱣᱟ ᱜᱷᱚᱴᱚᱱ ᱠᱚ ᱮᱨᱮᱲ ᱟᱠᱟ ᱠᱚ ᱫᱚᱦᱚ ᱠᱮᱜᱼᱟ ᱾

ᱥᱚᱱᱤᱭᱟ ᱜᱟᱱᱫᱷᱤ ᱑᱙᱙᱙ ᱨᱮ ᱵᱮᱞᱟᱨᱤ, ᱠᱚᱨᱱᱟᱴᱚᱠᱚ ᱠᱷᱚᱱ ᱟᱨ ᱚᱱᱟ ᱥᱟᱶᱛᱮ ᱟᱡᱤᱡ ᱵᱚᱸᱜᱟᱛᱟᱞᱟ ᱟᱠᱟᱱ ᱡᱤᱛᱟᱹ ᱦᱟᱜ ᱵᱟᱪᱷᱱᱟᱣ ᱴᱚᱴᱷᱟ ᱟᱢᱮᱴᱷᱤ, ᱩᱛᱚᱨ ᱯᱨᱚᱫᱮᱥ ᱠᱷᱚᱱ ᱞᱳᱠ ᱥᱚᱵᱷᱟ ᱞᱟᱹᱜᱤᱫ ᱵᱟᱪᱷᱱᱟᱣ ᱮ ᱞᱟᱹᱰᱷᱟᱹᱭ ᱠᱮᱫᱼᱟ ᱟᱨ ᱥᱩᱯᱩᱨ ᱯᱮ ᱜᱮᱥᱟᱥᱟᱭ ᱵᱷᱳᱴ ᱨᱮᱭᱟᱜ ᱦᱟᱯᱲᱟᱜ ᱵᱟᱹᱲᱛᱤ ᱛᱮᱭ ᱡᱤᱛᱠᱟᱹᱨ ᱮᱱᱟ ᱾ ᱑᱙᱙᱙ ᱥᱟᱞᱮᱨᱮ ᱑᱓ ᱟᱱᱟᱜ ᱞᱳᱠᱥᱚᱵᱷᱟ ᱨᱤᱱᱤᱡ ᱚᱯᱚᱡᱤᱥᱚᱱ ᱱᱮᱛᱟ ᱞᱮᱠᱟ ᱛᱮ ᱦᱚᱸᱭ ᱵᱟᱪᱷᱚᱱ ᱮᱱᱟ ᱾

᱒᱐᱐᱔ ᱵᱟᱪᱷᱱᱟᱣ ᱨᱮᱭᱟᱜ ᱢᱟᱬᱟᱝ ᱨᱮ ᱢᱤᱫ ᱨᱟᱭ ᱵᱮᱱᱟᱣ ᱞᱮᱱ ᱛᱟᱦᱮᱸᱫ ᱡᱮ ᱚᱴᱚᱞ ᱵᱤᱦᱟᱨᱤ ᱵᱟᱡᱽᱯᱮᱭᱤ ᱜᱮ ᱢᱟᱨᱟᱝ ᱢᱚᱱᱛᱨᱤ ᱫᱚᱭ ᱵᱮᱱᱟᱣᱜᱼᱟ ᱤᱠᱷᱟᱹᱱ ᱥᱚᱱᱤᱭᱟ ᱜᱟᱱᱫᱷᱤ ᱯᱩᱨᱟᱹ ᱫᱤᱥᱚᱢ ᱫᱟᱬᱟ ᱠᱟᱛᱮ ᱟᱹᱰᱤᱜᱮᱭ ᱪᱷᱟᱨᱟᱣ ᱠᱮᱫᱼᱟ ᱟᱨ ᱡᱚᱛᱚ ᱦᱚᱲ ᱮ ᱪᱚᱢᱠᱟᱣ ᱦᱚᱪᱚ ᱠᱚ ᱞᱮᱠᱟᱱ ᱚᱨᱡᱚ ᱛᱮ UPA ᱫᱚ ᱩᱭᱦᱟᱹᱨ ᱵᱟᱦᱮᱨ ᱒᱐᱐ ᱠᱷᱚᱱ ᱦᱚᱸ ᱵᱟᱹᱲᱛᱤ ᱥᱤᱴ ᱮ ᱧᱟᱢ ᱠᱮᱫᱼᱟ ᱾

ᱥᱚᱱᱤᱭᱟ ᱜᱟᱱᱫᱷᱤ ᱟᱡᱛᱮᱫ ᱨᱟᱭᱵᱚᱨᱮᱞᱤ, ᱩᱛᱚᱨ ᱯᱨᱚᱫᱮᱥ ᱠᱷᱚᱱ ᱥᱟᱸᱥᱚᱫᱽ ᱮ ᱵᱟᱪᱷᱚᱱ ᱮᱱᱟ ᱾ ᱮᱛᱚᱢ ᱫᱚᱞ ᱟᱜ ᱥᱚᱦᱚᱫ ᱛᱮ ᱥᱚᱨᱠᱟᱨ ᱵᱮᱱᱟᱣᱜᱼᱟ ᱟᱨ ᱡᱟᱦᱟᱸ ᱨᱤᱱᱤᱡ ᱢᱟᱨᱟᱝ ᱢᱚᱱᱛᱨᱤ ᱫᱚ ᱥᱚᱱᱤᱭᱟ ᱜᱟᱱᱫᱷᱤ ᱦᱩᱭᱩᱜ ᱟᱭ ᱾ ᱡᱚᱛᱚ ᱦᱚᱲ ᱛᱟᱺᱜᱤ ᱨᱮᱠᱚ ᱛᱟᱦᱮᱸ ᱠᱟᱱᱟ ᱫᱚ ᱥᱚᱱᱤᱭᱟ ᱜᱟᱱᱫᱷᱤ ᱜᱮ ᱢᱟᱨᱟᱝ ᱢᱚᱱᱛᱨᱤᱭ ᱵᱮᱱᱟᱣᱜᱼᱟ ᱟᱨ ᱡᱚᱛᱚ ᱦᱚᱲ ᱩᱱᱤᱭᱟᱜ ᱜᱮᱠᱚ ᱦᱮᱸᱥᱟᱹᱨᱤ ᱠᱮᱫᱼᱟ ᱾ ᱤᱠᱷᱟᱹᱱ ᱮᱱ.ᱰᱤ.ᱮ. ᱨᱤᱱ ᱱᱮᱛᱟ ᱫᱚ ᱥᱚᱱᱤᱭᱟ ᱜᱟᱱᱫᱷᱤ ᱵᱤᱫᱮᱥᱤ ᱠᱟᱱᱟᱭ ᱢᱮᱱᱛᱮ ᱠᱩᱠᱞᱤ ᱠᱚ ᱨᱟᱠᱟᱵ ᱠᱮᱫᱼᱟ ᱾ ᱥᱩᱥᱢᱟ ᱥᱣᱚᱨᱟᱡᱽ ᱟᱨ ᱩᱢᱟ ᱵᱷᱟᱨᱚᱛᱤ ᱠᱤᱱ ᱜᱷᱚᱥᱬᱟ ᱠᱮᱫᱼᱟ ᱫᱚ ᱡᱩᱫᱤ ᱥᱚᱱᱤᱭᱟ ᱜᱟᱱᱫᱷᱤ ᱢᱟᱨᱟᱝ ᱢᱚᱱᱛᱨᱤᱭ ᱦᱩᱭᱩᱜᱼᱟ ᱮᱱᱠᱷᱟᱱ ᱟᱹᱠᱤᱱ ᱵᱚᱦᱚᱜ ᱩᱵ ᱠᱤᱱ ᱢᱩᱰᱨᱟᱹᱜᱼᱟ ᱟᱨ ᱚᱛ ᱨᱮᱜᱮ ᱠᱤᱱ ᱜᱤᱛᱤᱡᱼᱟ ᱾ ᱑᱘ ᱢᱮ ᱦᱤᱞᱚᱜ ᱫᱚ ᱩᱱᱤ ᱢᱚᱱᱢᱚᱦᱚᱱ ᱥᱤᱝ ᱟᱡᱤᱡ ᱯᱟᱹᱛᱟᱹᱛᱤᱭᱟᱹ ᱢᱮᱱᱛᱮᱭ ᱞᱟᱹᱭ ᱥᱚᱫᱚᱨ ᱠᱮᱫᱮᱭᱟ ᱟᱨ ᱜᱟᱫᱮᱞ ᱨᱤᱱ ᱩᱱᱤ ᱥᱟᱯᱳᱴ ᱮ ᱨᱮᱭᱟᱜ ᱮ ᱱᱮᱦᱚᱸᱨ ᱠᱮᱫ ᱠᱚᱣᱟ ᱾ ᱟᱨ ᱠᱟᱛᱷᱟᱭ ᱟᱲᱟᱜ ᱠᱮᱜᱼᱟ ᱫᱚ ᱥᱚᱱᱤᱭᱟ ᱜᱟᱱᱫᱷᱤ ᱫᱚ ᱟᱡᱟᱜ ᱠᱩᱥᱤ ᱛᱮᱜᱮ ᱢᱟᱨᱟᱝ ᱢᱚᱱᱛᱨᱤ ᱵᱟᱝ ᱵᱮᱱᱟᱣᱜ ᱨᱮᱭᱟᱜ ᱫᱚᱭ ᱴᱷᱟᱹᱣᱠᱟᱹ ᱟᱠᱟᱫᱼᱟ ᱾ ᱠᱚᱸᱜᱨᱮᱥᱤᱭᱟᱹ ᱠᱚ ᱱᱚᱣᱟ ᱟᱹᱰᱤ ᱠᱚ ᱵᱤᱨᱩᱫᱷ ᱠᱮᱫᱼᱟ ᱟᱨ ᱩᱱᱤ ᱱᱚᱣᱟ ᱯᱷᱟᱹᱭᱥᱟᱞᱟ ᱫᱚᱭ ᱵᱚᱫᱚᱞ ᱢᱟ ᱢᱮᱱᱛᱮ ᱠᱚ ᱱᱮᱦᱚᱸᱨ ᱠᱮᱫᱮᱭᱟ ᱾ ᱤᱠᱷᱟᱹᱱ ᱩᱱᱤᱭ ᱢᱮᱱ ᱠᱮᱜᱼᱟ ᱫᱚ, ᱢᱟᱨᱟᱝ ᱢᱚᱱᱛᱨᱤ ᱵᱮᱱᱟᱣᱜ ᱫᱚ ᱩᱱᱤᱭᱟᱜ ᱛᱤᱥ ᱦᱚᱸ ᱡᱚᱥ ᱵᱟᱝ ᱛᱟᱦᱮᱸ ᱠᱟᱱᱟ ᱾ ᱡᱚᱛᱚ ᱱᱮᱛᱟ ᱢᱚᱱᱢᱚᱦᱚᱱ ᱥᱤᱝ ᱠᱚ ᱦᱮᱸᱥᱟᱹᱨᱤ ᱟᱫᱮᱭᱟ ᱟᱨ ᱩᱱᱤ ᱜᱮ ᱢᱟᱨᱟᱝ ᱢᱚᱱᱛᱨᱤ ᱦᱚᱸᱭ ᱵᱮᱱᱟᱣ ᱮᱱᱟ ᱾ ᱤᱠᱷᱟᱹᱱ ᱥᱚᱱᱤᱭᱟ ᱜᱟᱱᱫᱷᱤ ᱫᱚ ᱫᱚᱞ ᱨᱤᱱᱤᱡ ᱯᱟᱨᱥᱮᱛ ᱞᱮᱠᱟ ᱛᱮ ᱠᱚ ᱵᱟᱪᱷᱚᱱ ᱠᱮᱫᱮᱭᱟ ᱾

ᱡᱟᱹᱛᱤᱭᱟᱹᱨᱤ ᱫᱤᱥᱟ. ᱩᱫᱩᱜ ᱠᱩᱢᱩᱴ ᱨᱤᱱᱤᱡ ᱯᱟᱨᱥᱮᱛ ᱠᱟᱱ ᱠᱷᱟᱹᱛᱤᱨ ᱮ ᱥᱚᱱᱤᱭᱟ ᱜᱟᱱᱫᱷᱤ ᱪᱮᱛᱟᱱ ᱨᱮ ᱞᱟᱵᱽ ᱯᱚᱫᱽ ᱨᱮ ᱢᱮᱱᱟᱭ ᱥᱟᱶᱛᱮ ᱞᱳᱠᱥᱚᱵᱷᱟ ᱨᱤᱱᱤᱡ ᱦᱚᱸ ᱥᱚᱦᱮᱛ ᱠᱟᱱᱟᱭ ᱢᱮᱱᱛᱮ ᱫᱳᱥ ᱠᱚ ᱞᱟᱫᱮ ᱟᱫᱮᱭᱟ ᱾ ᱡᱟᱦᱟᱸ ᱠᱷᱟᱹᱛᱤᱨ ᱒᱓ ᱢᱟᱨᱪ ᱒᱐᱐᱖ ᱦᱤᱞᱚᱜ ᱫᱚ ᱩᱱᱤ ᱡᱮᱜᱮᱛᱟᱹᱨᱤ ᱫᱤᱥᱟ ᱩᱫᱩᱜ ᱠᱩᱢᱩᱴ ᱨᱤᱱᱤᱡ ᱯᱟᱨᱥᱮᱛ ᱯᱚᱫᱽ ᱠᱷᱚᱱ ᱟᱨ ᱞᱳᱠᱥᱚᱵᱷᱟ ᱨᱤᱱᱤᱡ ᱥᱚᱦᱮᱛ ᱵᱟᱱᱟᱨ ᱯᱚᱫᱽ ᱠᱷᱚᱱ ᱜᱮ ᱥᱟᱦᱟᱜ ᱞᱟᱹᱜᱤᱫ ᱥᱟᱠᱟᱢ ᱮ ᱫᱟᱞ ᱠᱮᱫᱼᱟ ᱾ ᱢᱮ ᱒᱐᱐᱖ ᱨᱮ ᱩᱱᱤ ᱫᱚ ᱨᱟᱭᱵᱚᱨᱮᱞᱤ, ᱩᱛᱚᱨᱯᱨᱚᱫᱮᱥ ᱠᱷᱚᱱ ᱟᱨ ᱦᱚᱸ ᱥᱟᱸᱥᱚᱫᱽ ᱮ ᱵᱟᱪᱷᱚᱱ ᱮᱱᱟ ᱾ ᱟᱨ ᱩᱱᱤ ᱟᱡ ᱥᱟᱶ ᱥᱩᱯᱩᱨ ᱦᱮᱯᱨᱟᱣ ᱮᱫᱤᱡ ᱫᱚ ᱯᱩᱱ ᱜᱮᱥᱟᱥᱟᱭ ᱠᱷᱚᱱ ᱦᱚᱸ ᱵᱟᱹᱲᱛᱤ ᱵᱷᱳᱴ ᱛᱮᱭ ᱦᱟᱨᱟᱣ ᱠᱮᱫᱮᱭᱟ ᱾ ᱒᱐᱐᱙ ᱨᱮᱭᱟᱜ ᱞᱳᱠᱥᱚᱵᱷᱟ ᱵᱟᱪᱷᱱᱟᱣ ᱨᱮ ᱩᱱᱤ ᱫᱚ ᱟᱨ ᱦᱚᱸ UPA ᱞᱟᱹᱜᱤᱫ ᱫᱤᱥᱣᱟᱹ ᱴᱷᱮᱱ ᱵᱷᱳᱴ ᱮ ᱠᱚᱭ ᱠᱮᱫᱼᱟ ᱾ ᱟᱨ ᱢᱤᱫ ᱫᱷᱟᱣ UPA ᱡᱤᱛᱠᱟᱹᱨ ᱮ ᱟᱢᱮᱴ ᱠᱮᱫᱼᱟ ᱟᱨ ᱥᱚᱱᱤᱭᱟ ᱜᱮ UPA ᱨᱩᱱᱩᱱ ᱯᱟᱨᱥᱮᱛ ᱞᱮᱠᱟᱛᱮᱭ ᱵᱟᱪᱷᱚᱱ ᱮᱱᱟ ᱾

ᱟᱨ ᱦᱚᱸ ᱧᱮᱞ ᱢᱮᱥᱟᱯᱲᱟᱣ

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ᱵᱟᱦᱨᱮ ᱡᱚᱱᱚᱲᱥᱟᱯᱲᱟᱣ

  1. http://www.bbc.com/news/world-asia-india-26830531
  2. February 1, Harish Gupta; February 1, 1999 ISSUE DATE:; February 28, 1999UPDATED:; Ist, 2013 11:40. "By stressing Hindu values Sonia Gandhi enhances personal acceptability and Congress appeal". India Today. 
  3. N. I. Sarkar. Sonia Gandhi: Tryst with India. 
  4. "Elevenses". Rediff.com. 13 ᱢᱮ 1999. Retrieved 31 ᱡᱟᱱᱩᱣᱟᱨᱤ 2010.