ᱚᱦᱢᱚᱫᱽ ᱥᱟᱦ ᱚᱵᱽᱫᱟᱞᱤ ᱡᱟᱦᱟᱸᱭ ᱫᱚ ᱚᱦᱢᱚᱫᱽ ᱥᱟᱦ ᱫᱩᱨᱟᱱᱤ ᱢᱮᱱᱛᱮ ᱦᱚᱸ ᱠᱚ ᱢᱮᱛᱟᱭᱟ ᱾ ᱥᱮᱨᱢᱟ ᱑᱗᱔᱘ ᱥᱟᱞᱮᱨᱮ ᱱᱟᱫᱤᱨᱥᱟᱦ ᱟᱜ ᱜᱩᱨ ᱛᱟᱭᱚᱢ ᱟᱯᱷᱜᱟᱱᱤᱥᱛᱟᱱ ᱨᱤᱱᱤᱡ ᱥᱟᱥᱚᱱᱤᱭᱟᱹ ᱟᱨ ᱫᱩᱨᱟᱱᱤ ᱥᱟᱢᱨᱟᱡᱽ ᱨᱤᱱᱤᱡ ᱛᱷᱟᱯᱚᱱᱤᱭᱟᱹᱭ ᱵᱮᱱᱟᱣ ᱮᱱᱟ ᱾ ᱩᱱᱤ ᱫᱚ ᱥᱤᱧᱚᱛ ᱨᱮ ᱥᱮᱨᱢᱟ ᱑᱗᱔᱘ ᱠᱷᱚᱱ ᱥᱮᱨᱢᱟ ᱑᱗᱕᱘ ᱫᱷᱟᱹᱵᱤᱡ ᱟᱹᱰᱤ ᱫᱷᱟᱣ ᱪᱷᱩᱴᱟᱹᱣ ᱮᱱᱟ ᱾ ᱩᱱᱤ ᱟᱡᱟᱜ ᱡᱚᱛᱚ ᱠᱷᱚᱱ ᱢᱟᱨᱟᱝ ᱦᱟᱢᱞᱟ ᱥᱮᱨᱢᱟ ᱑᱗᱕᱗ ᱥᱟᱞᱮᱨᱮ ᱯᱩᱥ (ᱡᱟᱱᱩᱣᱟᱨᱤ) ᱪᱟᱸᱫᱚ ᱨᱮ ᱫᱤᱞᱞᱤ ᱨᱮᱭ ᱠᱚᱨᱟᱣ ᱞᱮᱜᱼᱟ ᱾ ᱚᱦᱢᱚᱫᱽᱥᱟᱦ ᱢᱤᱫ ᱪᱟᱸᱫᱚ ᱫᱷᱟᱹᱵᱤᱡ ᱫᱤᱞᱞᱤ ᱨᱮ ᱵᱟᱥᱟ ᱛᱟᱦᱮᱸ ᱠᱟᱛᱮ ᱟᱹᱰᱤ ᱜᱟᱱ ᱠᱩᱸᱵᱽᱲᱩ ᱵᱩᱠᱲᱩ ᱟᱠᱟᱭ ᱛᱟᱦᱮᱸ ᱮᱱᱟ ᱾ ᱚᱸᱰᱮᱱᱟᱜ ᱠᱩᱸᱵᱽᱲᱩ ᱰᱟᱠᱟᱛ ᱨᱮ ᱩᱱᱤ ᱠᱚᱨᱚᱲ ᱨᱮᱭᱟᱜ ᱥᱚᱢᱯᱚᱛᱤ ᱟᱡᱟᱜ ᱛᱤ ᱨᱮ ᱡᱷᱟᱹᱞᱤ ᱞᱮᱱ ᱛᱟᱦᱮᱸᱫ ᱾[᱑]

ᱫᱩᱨᱟᱱᱤ ᱥᱟᱢᱨᱟᱡᱽ ᱨᱤᱱᱤᱡ ᱯᱩᱭᱞᱩ ᱥᱟᱥᱚᱱᱤᱭᱟᱹᱥᱟᱯᱲᱟᱣ

ᱥᱟᱥᱚᱱ ᱚᱠᱛᱚ :- ᱑᱗᱔᱗-᱑᱗᱗᱒ (᱒᱕ ᱥᱮᱨᱢᱟ ᱥᱟᱥᱚᱱ ᱠᱟᱞ)

ᱨᱟᱡᱽᱴᱤᱠᱞᱤ :- ᱚᱠᱴᱳᱵᱚᱨ ᱑᱗᱔᱗ ᱾

ᱯᱩᱭᱞᱩ ᱟᱺᱜᱤᱵᱷᱟᱹᱨᱤᱭᱟ.:- ᱦᱩᱥᱮᱱ ᱦᱳᱛᱟᱠ ᱾

ᱟᱜᱟᱢ ᱟᱺᱜᱤᱵᱷᱟᱹᱨᱤᱭᱟᱹ:- ᱴᱟᱭᱢᱚᱨ ᱥᱟᱦ ᱫᱩᱨᱟᱱᱤ ᱾

ᱡᱟᱱᱟᱢ :- ᱥᱤᱼ ᱑᱗᱒᱒, ᱦᱮᱨᱟᱛ, ᱟᱯᱷᱜᱟᱱᱤᱥᱛᱷᱟᱱ ᱾

ᱜᱩᱨ :- ᱑᱖ ᱚᱠᱴᱳᱵᱚᱨ ᱑᱗᱗᱒, ᱢᱟᱨᱩᱯᱷ, ᱠᱟᱸᱫᱟᱦᱟᱨ ᱴᱚᱴᱷᱟ, ᱫᱩᱨᱟᱱᱤ ᱥᱟᱢᱨᱟᱡᱽ ᱾

ᱛᱚᱯᱟ:- ᱠᱟᱸᱫᱟᱦᱟᱨ, ᱫᱩᱨᱟᱱᱤ ᱥᱟᱢᱨᱟᱡᱽ ᱾

ᱮᱨᱟ :- ᱦᱟᱡᱽᱨᱟᱛ ᱵᱮᱜᱩᱢ ᱤᱯᱷᱟᱛ-ᱩᱥ-ᱱᱤᱥᱟ ᱵᱮᱜᱩᱢ ᱾

ᱯᱩᱨᱟᱹ ᱧᱩᱛᱩᱢ :- ᱚᱦᱢᱚᱫᱽ ᱥᱟᱦ ᱚᱵᱽᱫᱟᱞᱤ ᱫᱩᱨ-ᱮ-ᱫᱩᱨᱟᱱᱤ ᱾

ᱵᱚᱝᱥᱚ :- ᱫᱩᱨᱟᱱᱤ ᱾

ᱟᱯᱟᱛ :- ᱢᱚᱦᱦᱚᱢᱚᱫᱽ ᱡᱟᱢᱚᱱ ᱠᱷᱟᱱ ᱚᱵᱽᱫᱟᱞᱤ ᱾

ᱮᱸᱜᱟᱛ :- ᱡᱟᱜᱷᱩᱱᱟ ᱟᱞᱟᱠᱚᱡᱟᱭᱤ ᱾

ᱫᱷᱚᱨᱚᱢ :- ᱤᱥᱞᱟᱢ ᱾

ᱚᱵᱽᱫᱟᱞᱤ ᱦᱚᱛᱮᱛᱮ ᱵᱨᱚᱡᱽ ᱨᱮᱭᱟᱜ ᱰᱟᱠᱟᱛᱥᱟᱯᱲᱟᱣ

ᱫᱤᱞᱞᱤᱭ ᱰᱟᱠᱟᱛ ᱠᱮᱫ ᱛᱟᱭᱚᱢ ᱚᱵᱽᱫᱟᱞᱤ ᱟᱜ ᱞᱟᱞᱚᱪ ᱵᱟᱹᱲᱛᱤ ᱮᱱᱟ ᱾ ᱩᱱᱤ ᱫᱚ ᱫᱤᱞᱞᱤ ᱠᱷᱚᱱ ᱥᱳᱴᱤ ᱡᱟᱴ ᱟᱜ ᱨᱤᱭᱟᱥᱚᱛ ᱠᱚ ᱦᱚᱸ ᱠᱩᱸᱵᱽᱲᱩᱭ ᱨᱮᱭᱟᱜ ᱢᱚᱱᱮᱭ ᱵᱮᱱᱟᱣ ᱠᱮᱫᱼᱟ ᱾ ᱵᱨᱚᱡᱽ ᱪᱮᱛᱟᱱ ᱨᱮᱭ ᱚᱫᱷᱤᱠᱟᱨ ᱞᱟᱹᱜᱤᱫ ᱛᱮ ᱩᱱᱤ ᱫᱚ ᱡᱟᱴ ᱟᱨ ᱢᱚᱨᱟᱴᱷᱟ ᱠᱚᱣᱟᱜ ᱵᱤᱵᱟᱹᱫᱤᱭᱟᱹ ᱦᱟᱞᱟᱛ ᱨᱮᱭᱟᱜ ᱯᱩᱨᱟᱹᱯᱩᱨᱤ ᱯᱷᱟᱭᱫᱟᱭ ᱩᱴᱷᱟᱹᱣ ᱠᱮᱫᱼᱟ ᱾ ᱚᱦᱢᱚᱫᱽᱥᱟᱦ ᱚᱵᱽᱫᱟᱞᱤ ᱯᱟᱴᱷᱟᱬ ᱠᱚᱣᱤᱡ ᱥᱮᱱᱟ ᱥᱟᱶ ᱫᱤᱞᱞᱤ ᱠᱷᱚᱱ ᱟᱜᱽᱨᱟ ᱥᱮᱫ ᱮ ᱪᱟᱞᱟᱣ ᱮᱱᱟ ᱾ ᱚᱵᱽᱫᱟᱞᱤ ᱨᱤᱱ ᱯᱟᱹᱭᱠᱚ ᱠᱚᱣᱟᱜ ᱯᱩᱭᱞᱩ ᱥᱟᱢᱟᱝ ᱫᱟᱯᱨᱟᱢ ᱫᱚ ᱡᱟᱴ ᱥᱟᱶ ᱵᱚᱞᱞᱚᱵᱽᱜᱚᱰ ᱨᱮ ᱦᱩᱭ ᱮᱱᱟ ᱾ ᱚᱸᱰᱮ ᱡᱟᱴ ᱥᱚᱨᱫᱟᱨ ᱵᱟᱞᱩᱥᱤᱝ ᱟᱨ ᱥᱩᱨᱚᱡᱽᱢᱚᱞ ᱤᱡ ᱢᱟᱨᱟᱝ ᱦᱚᱯᱚᱱ ᱡᱚᱵᱟᱦᱚᱨ ᱥᱤᱝ ᱫᱚ ᱯᱟᱹᱭᱠᱚ ᱠᱚᱣᱟᱜ ᱢᱤᱫ ᱦᱩᱰᱤᱧ ᱴᱩᱠᱰᱟ ᱤᱫᱤ ᱠᱟᱛᱮ ᱚᱵᱽᱫᱟᱞᱤ ᱟᱜ ᱦᱟᱯᱲᱟᱜ ᱯᱟᱹᱭᱠᱚ ᱠᱚ ᱫᱟᱨᱟᱢ ᱞᱟᱹᱜᱤᱫ ᱮ ᱨᱤᱠᱟᱹ ᱠᱮᱜᱼᱟ ᱾ ᱩᱱᱤ ᱟᱹᱰᱤ ᱥᱟᱦᱟᱥ ᱥᱟᱶᱛᱮᱭ ᱞᱟᱹᱰᱷᱟᱹᱭ ᱠᱮᱜᱼᱟ ᱤᱠᱷᱟᱹᱱ ᱩᱱᱤ ᱵᱟᱹᱭᱨᱤ ᱯᱟᱹᱭᱠᱚ ᱴᱷᱮᱱ ᱦᱟᱹᱨ ᱥᱟᱢᱟᱝ ᱛᱮ ᱦᱩᱭ ᱟᱫᱮᱭᱟ ᱾

ᱦᱩᱞᱥᱟᱹᱭᱤᱭᱟᱹ ᱦᱚᱛᱮᱛᱮ ᱰᱟᱠᱟᱛᱥᱟᱯᱲᱟᱣ

ᱦᱩᱞᱥᱟᱹᱭᱤᱭᱟᱹ ᱫᱚ ᱵᱚᱞᱚᱵᱽᱜᱚᱰ ᱟᱨ ᱚᱱᱟ ᱟᱰᱮ-ᱯᱟᱥᱮ ᱠᱚ ᱰᱟᱠᱟᱛ ᱠᱮᱫᱼᱟ ᱾ ᱤᱱᱟᱹ ᱛᱟᱭᱚᱢ ᱚᱦᱢᱚᱫᱽᱥᱟᱦ ᱫᱚ ᱟᱡ ᱨᱤᱱ ᱵᱟᱨᱭᱟ ᱥᱚᱨᱫᱟᱨ ᱠᱤᱱᱟᱜ ᱧᱮᱞ ᱡᱚᱛᱚᱱ ᱨᱮ ᱒᱐ ᱜᱮᱥᱟᱭ ᱯᱟᱴᱷᱟᱬ ᱯᱟᱹᱭᱠᱚ ᱠᱚ ᱢᱚᱛᱷᱩᱨᱟ ᱞᱟᱹᱜᱤᱫ ᱮ ᱵᱷᱮᱡᱟ ᱠᱮᱫ ᱠᱚᱣᱟ ᱾

ᱯᱟᱹᱭᱠᱚ ᱠᱚᱣᱟᱜ ᱢᱚᱛᱷᱩᱨᱟ ᱥᱮᱫ ᱢᱚᱦᱰᱟᱥᱟᱯᱲᱟᱣ

ᱚᱵᱽᱫᱟᱞᱤᱭᱟᱜ ᱵᱷᱮᱡᱟ ᱞᱮᱠᱟᱛᱮ ᱯᱟᱹᱭᱠᱚ ᱠᱚ ᱢᱚᱛᱷᱩᱨᱟ ᱥᱮᱫ ᱠᱚ ᱢᱚᱦᱰᱟ ᱮᱱᱟ ᱾ ᱢᱚᱛᱷᱩᱨᱟ ᱠᱷᱚᱱ ᱯᱟᱞᱮ ᱘ ᱢᱤᱞ ᱢᱟᱬᱟᱝ ᱨᱮ ᱪᱚᱣᱢᱩᱦᱟᱹ ᱴᱷᱮᱱ ᱡᱟᱴ ᱨᱤᱱ ᱦᱩᱰᱤᱧ ᱥᱟᱺᱦᱤᱡ ᱯᱟᱹᱭᱠᱚ ᱜᱟᱫᱮᱞ ᱥᱟᱶ ᱩᱱᱠᱩᱣᱟᱜ ᱞᱟᱹᱰᱷᱟᱹᱭ ᱦᱩᱭ ᱮᱱᱟ ᱾ ᱡᱟᱴ ᱫᱚ ᱟᱹᱰᱤ ᱵᱟᱦᱟᱫᱩᱨ ᱥᱟᱛᱞᱟᱜ ᱮ ᱞᱟᱹᱰᱷᱟᱹᱭ ᱠᱮᱫᱼᱟ ᱾ ᱤᱠᱷᱟᱹᱱ ᱵᱟᱹᱭᱨᱤ ᱠᱚᱣᱟᱜ ᱮᱞᱮᱞ ᱵᱟᱹᱲᱛᱤ ᱛᱟᱦᱮᱸ ᱠᱟᱱ ᱠᱷᱟᱹᱛᱤᱨ ᱩᱱᱤ ᱫᱚ ᱩᱱᱠᱩ ᱴᱷᱮᱱ ᱮ ᱦᱟᱨᱟᱣ ᱮᱱᱟ ᱾

ᱯᱟᱹᱭᱠᱚ ᱠᱚᱣᱟᱜ ᱢᱚᱛᱷᱩᱨᱟ ᱟᱨ ᱵᱨᱩᱱᱫᱟᱵᱚᱱ ᱨᱮ ᱠᱩᱸᱵᱽᱲᱩ ᱠᱮᱫ ᱟᱨ ᱢᱟᱜ ᱢᱟᱯᱟᱜ ᱦᱩᱭ ᱮᱱ ᱛᱟᱭᱚᱢ ᱚᱵᱽᱫᱟᱞᱤ ᱦᱚᱸ ᱟᱡ ᱨᱤᱱ ᱯᱟᱹᱭᱠᱚ ᱠᱚ ᱥᱟᱶ ᱢᱚᱛᱷᱩᱨᱟᱭ ᱦᱮᱡ ᱥᱮᱴᱮᱨ ᱮᱱᱟ ᱾ ᱵᱨᱚᱡᱽ ᱴᱚᱴᱷᱟ ᱨᱮᱭᱟᱜ ᱛᱮᱥᱟᱨ ᱢᱟᱨᱟᱝ ᱛᱟᱞᱢᱟ ᱜᱳᱠᱩᱞ ᱨᱮ ᱩᱱᱤᱭᱟᱜ ᱱᱚᱡᱚᱨ ᱛᱟᱦᱮᱸ ᱠᱟᱱᱟ ᱾ ᱩᱱᱤ ᱫᱚ ᱜᱳᱠᱩᱞ ᱠᱩᱸᱵᱽᱲᱩ ᱠᱟᱛᱮ ᱟᱜᱽᱨᱟ ᱪᱟᱞᱟᱜ ᱥᱟᱱᱟ ᱮ ᱠᱟᱱ ᱛᱟᱦᱮᱸᱫ ᱾ ᱩᱱᱤ ᱢᱚᱛᱷᱩᱨᱟ ᱠᱷᱚᱱ ᱡᱚᱢᱩᱱᱟ ᱜᱟᱰᱟ ᱯᱟᱨᱚᱢ ᱠᱟᱛᱮ ᱢᱚᱦᱟᱵᱚᱱ ᱮ ᱰᱟᱠᱟᱛ ᱠᱮᱜᱼᱟ ᱤᱱᱟᱹ ᱛᱟᱭᱚᱢ ᱜᱳᱠᱩᱞ ᱥᱮᱫ ᱮ ᱢᱚᱦᱰᱟ ᱮᱱᱟ ᱾ ᱚᱸᱰᱮ ᱱᱟᱜᱟ ᱥᱟᱫᱷᱩ ᱠᱚᱣᱟᱜ ᱢᱤᱫ ᱢᱟᱨᱟᱝ ᱜᱟᱫᱮᱞ ᱩᱱᱠᱩ ᱵᱮᱥ ᱴᱷᱤᱠ ᱠᱚ ᱥᱟᱢᱟᱝ ᱫᱟᱯᱨᱟᱢ ᱠᱮᱫ ᱠᱚᱣᱟ ᱾ ᱤᱱᱟᱹ ᱚᱠᱛᱚ ᱨᱮ ᱚᱵᱽᱫᱟᱞᱤ ᱨᱤᱱ ᱯᱟᱹᱭᱠᱚ ᱛᱟᱞᱟᱨᱮ ᱦᱟᱹᱭᱡᱟ ᱯᱟᱥᱱᱟᱣ ᱮᱱᱟ ᱾ ᱡᱟᱦᱟᱸ ᱠᱷᱟᱹᱛᱤᱨ ᱟᱯᱷᱜᱟᱱ ᱯᱟᱹᱭᱠᱚ ᱟᱹᱰᱤ ᱵᱟᱹᱲᱛᱤ ᱠᱚ ᱜᱩᱨ ᱵᱷᱤᱸᱫᱟᱹᱲ ᱮᱱᱟ ᱾ ᱱᱚᱣᱟ ᱠᱷᱟᱹᱛᱤᱨ ᱚᱵᱽᱫᱟᱞᱤ ᱫᱚᱭ ᱨᱩᱣᱟᱹᱲ ᱥᱮᱱ ᱮᱱᱟ ᱾ ᱱᱚᱜ ᱚᱭ ᱱᱚᱝᱠᱟ ᱥᱟᱫᱷᱩ ᱠᱚᱣᱟᱜ ᱵᱤᱨ ᱵᱷᱟᱱᱴᱟ ᱟᱨ ᱵᱚᱸᱜᱟ ᱵᱳᱨᱳ ᱠᱚᱣᱟᱜ ᱜᱚᱲᱚ ᱦᱚᱛᱮᱛᱮ ᱜᱳᱠᱩᱞ ᱠᱩᱸᱵᱽᱲᱩ ᱩᱡᱟᱹᱲᱚᱜ ᱠᱷᱚᱱ ᱵᱟᱧᱪᱟᱣ ᱮᱱᱟ ᱾

ᱟᱜᱽᱨᱟ ᱨᱮ ᱰᱟᱠᱟᱛᱥᱟᱯᱲᱟᱣ

ᱚᱵᱽᱫᱟᱞᱤ ᱨᱤᱱ ᱯᱟᱹᱭᱠᱚ ᱠᱚ ᱵᱨᱚᱡᱽ ᱨᱮ ᱨᱟᱹᱯᱩᱫ-ᱯᱚᱥᱟᱜ, ᱠᱩᱸᱵᱽᱲᱩ ᱩᱡᱟᱹᱲ ᱟᱛᱮ ᱟᱜᱽᱨᱟ ᱨᱮ ᱠᱚ ᱥᱮᱴᱮᱨ ᱮᱱᱟ ᱾ ᱩᱱᱤ ᱨᱤᱱ ᱯᱟᱹᱭᱠᱚ ᱠᱚ ᱟᱜᱽᱨᱟ ᱨᱮᱠᱚ ᱞᱩᱴ-ᱯᱟᱴ ᱠᱮᱜᱼᱟ ᱾ ᱚᱸᱰᱮ ᱩᱱᱤ ᱨᱤᱱ ᱯᱟᱹᱭᱠᱚ ᱠᱚ ᱛᱟᱞᱟᱨᱮ ᱦᱟᱹᱭᱡᱟᱹ ᱫᱚᱦᱲᱟ ᱯᱟᱥᱱᱟᱣ ᱮᱱᱟ ᱚᱱᱟᱛᱮ ᱩᱱᱠᱩ ᱚᱸᱰᱮ ᱠᱷᱚᱱ ᱠᱚ ᱨᱩᱣᱟᱹᱲ ᱮᱱᱟ ᱾

ᱟᱨ ᱦᱚᱸ ᱧᱮᱞ ᱢᱮᱥᱟᱯᱲᱟᱣ

ᱤᱝᱞᱤᱥ ᱣᱤᱠᱤᱥᱟᱯᱲᱟᱣ

ᱥᱟ.ᱠᱷᱭᱟ.ᱛᱥᱟᱯᱲᱟᱣ

http://www.britannica.com/EBchecked/topic/10162/Ahmad-Shah-Durrani

https://en.m.wikipedia.org/wiki/Library_of_Congress_Country_Studies

http://www.marxists.org/archive/marx/works/1857/afghanistan/index.htm

http://www.britannica.com/EBchecked/topic/7798/Afghanistan/21396/The-Durrani-dynasty?anchor=ref306642

https://books.google.com/books?id=4XMSl-aFk1YC&lpg=PP1&pg=PA99#v=onepage&q&f=false

https://books.google.com/?id=F_A8AAAAMAAJ

https://web.archive.org/web/20100812115521/http://www.afghan-web.com/bios/yest/abdali.html

ᱵᱟᱦᱨᱮ ᱡᱚᱱᱚᱲᱥᱟᱯᱲᱟᱣ

http://www.4dw.net/royalark/Afghanistan/durrani1.htm

http://www.khyber.org/pashtotribes/a/abdali.shtml

http://www.barmazid.com/2014/08/battle-of-panipat-1761_12.html

http://famousdiamonds.tripod.com/koh-i-noordiamond.html

https://web.archive.org/web/20070813210837/http://www.afghan-network.net/Culture/ahmadshah.html

http://www.bbc.co.uk/dna/h2g2/A730801

  1. Ahmad Shah and the Durrani Empire, Library of Congress Country Studies on Afghanistan, 1997, Accessed 2010-08-25