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ᱯᱚᱧᱡᱟᱵᱤ
ਪੰਜਾਬੀپنجابی
Punjabi example.svg
The word "Punjabi" written in Shahmukhi (Nast'aliq style), Gurmukhi
ᱡᱟᱱᱟᱢ ᱴᱷᱟᱶ ᱯᱚᱧᱡᱟᱵᱽ ᱮᱞᱟᱠᱟ
ᱡᱟᱱᱟᱢ ᱯᱟᱹᱨᱥᱤ ᱞᱮᱠᱟ
[᱑]
ᱤᱱᱰᱚ-ᱤᱣᱨᱚᱯᱤᱭᱟᱱ
  • ᱤᱱᱰᱚ-ᱤᱨᱟᱱᱤᱭᱟᱱ
    • ᱤᱱᱰᱚ-ᱟᱨᱭᱚ
      • ᱮᱛᱚᱢ-ᱯᱟᱪᱮ ᱤᱱᱰᱚ-ᱟᱨᱭᱚ[᱒]
        • ᱯᱚᱧᱡᱟᱵᱤ
ᱥᱴᱟᱱᱰᱟᱨᱰ ᱯᱷᱚᱨᱢ
ᱢᱟᱡᱷᱤ ᱡᱚᱜᱚ-ᱯᱟᱹᱨᱥᱤ
ᱦᱤᱱᱰᱚᱠᱚ ᱡᱚᱜᱚ-ᱯᱟᱹᱨᱥᱤ
ᱥᱟᱨᱟᱭᱠᱤ ᱡᱚᱜᱚ-ᱯᱟᱹᱨᱥᱤ
ᱚᱞ ᱛᱚᱦᱚᱨ
ᱥᱟᱦᱢᱩᱠᱷᱤ (Extended Perso-Arabic)
ଗୁରୁମୁଖୀ (ବ୍ରାହ୍ମୀ)[᱓]
ପଞ୍ଜାବୀ ବ୍ରେଲି (ଭାରତ)
ᱫᱮᱵᱽᱱᱟᱜᱚᱨᱤ (ᱵᱽᱨᱟᱢᱦᱤ ᱞᱤᱯᱤ, unofficial)[᱔]
ᱥᱚᱨᱠᱟᱨᱤ ᱢᱟᱱᱚᱛ
ᱟᱹᱢᱟᱹᱞᱮᱛ ᱯᱟᱹᱨᱥᱤ ᱴᱚᱴᱷᱟ
 India (ᱥᱤᱧᱚᱛᱤᱭᱟᱹ ᱯᱚᱱᱚᱛ ᱯᱚᱧᱡᱟᱵᱽ, ᱪᱚᱱᱰᱤᱜᱚᱰ, ᱫᱤᱞᱞᱤ, ᱦᱚᱨᱤᱭᱟᱬᱟ ᱨᱮ ᱥᱚᱨᱠᱟᱨᱤ ᱯᱟᱹᱨᱥᱤ ᱢᱟᱹᱱ
 Pakistan ᱯᱚᱧᱡᱟᱵᱽ, ᱯᱟᱠᱤᱥᱛᱟᱱ ᱨᱮᱱᱟᱜ ᱴᱚᱴᱷᱟ ᱯᱟᱹᱨᱥᱤ
ᱯᱟᱹᱨᱥᱤ ᱠᱳᱰ
ISO 639-1 pa
ISO 639-2 pan
ISO 639-3 pan – inclusive code
Individual codes:
bhd – Bhadrawahi
bht – Bhattiyali
kfs – Bilaspuri
cdh – Chambeali
cdj – Churahi
doi – Dogri
dgo – Dogri (proper)
gbk – Gaddi (Bharmauri)
kjo – Harijan Kinnauri
hii – Hinduri
jat – Jakati
jns – Jaunsari
hno – Northern Hindko
xnr – Kangri
xhe – Khetrani
kfx – Kullu Pahari
doi – Lahnda
bfz – Mahasu Pahari
mjl – Mandeali
pnb – Pahari-Potwari
pgg – Pangwali
skr – Saraiki
srx – Sirmauri
hnd – Southern Hindko
pnb – Western Punjabi
ᱜᱽᱞᱚᱴᱴᱚᱞᱚᱜᱽ panj1256  Punjabi[᱕]
ᱯᱟᱹᱨᱥᱤ ᱴᱚᱴᱷᱟ 59-AAF-e
Punjabi Indo Aryan.png
Areas (red) where Punjabi is the native language, compared to all Indo-Aryan languages (dark grey)
This article contains IPA phonetic symbols. Without proper rendering support, you may see question marks, boxes, or other symbols instead of Unicode characters. For an introductory guide on IPA symbols, see Help:IPA.

ᱯᱚᱧᱡᱟᱵᱤ ᱯᱟᱹᱨᱥᱤ ᱫᱚ ᱥᱤᱧᱚᱛ ᱫᱤᱟᱚᱢ ᱯᱚᱧᱡᱟᱵᱽ ᱯᱚᱱᱚᱛ ᱨᱮᱱᱟᱜ ᱥᱚᱨᱠᱟᱨᱤ ᱯᱟᱹᱨᱥᱤ ᱠᱟᱱᱟ ᱾ ᱯᱚᱧᱡᱟᱵᱤ /pʌnˈɑːbi/[᱖] (ᱥᱟᱢᱩᱠᱷᱤ: پنجابی paṉjābī; ᱜᱩᱨᱩᱢᱩᱠᱷᱤ: ਪੰਜਾਬੀ pañjābī)[᱗] ᱫᱚ ᱦᱩᱭᱩᱜ ᱠᱟᱱᱟ ᱢᱤᱫ ᱤᱱᱰᱚ-ᱟᱨᱭᱚ ᱜᱷᱟᱨᱚᱡᱽ ᱨᱮᱱᱟᱜ ᱯᱟᱹᱨᱥᱤ, ᱡᱟᱦᱟᱸ ᱫᱚ ᱡᱮᱜᱮᱛ ᱡᱟᱠᱟᱛ ᱨᱮ ᱑᱑ ᱠᱚᱨᱚᱨ ᱜᱟᱱ ᱦᱚᱲ ᱠᱚ ᱨᱚᱲ ᱠᱟᱱᱟ ᱾ ᱒᱐᱑᱕ ᱥᱟᱹᱦᱤᱛ ᱛᱮ ᱱᱚᱶᱟ ᱫᱚ ᱡᱮᱜᱮᱛ ᱨᱮᱱᱟᱜ ᱑᱐ ᱟᱱᱟᱜ ᱡᱚᱛᱚ ᱠᱷᱚᱱ ᱵᱟᱹᱲᱛᱤ ᱦᱚᱲ ᱠᱚ ᱨᱚᱲᱮᱫᱟᱜ ᱯᱟᱹᱨᱥᱤ ᱠᱟᱱᱟ ᱾[᱘][᱙] ᱱᱚᱶᱟ ᱫᱚ ᱯᱚᱧᱡᱟᱵᱤ ᱦᱚᱲ ᱠᱚᱣᱟᱜ ᱯᱟᱹᱨᱥᱤ ᱠᱟᱱᱟ, ᱩᱱᱠᱩ ᱫᱚ ᱥᱤᱧᱚᱛ ᱟᱨ ᱯᱟᱠᱤᱥᱛᱟᱱ ᱨᱮ ᱵᱟᱹᱲᱛᱤ ᱠᱟᱛᱮ ᱢᱮᱱᱟᱜ ᱠᱚᱣᱟ ᱾ ᱤᱱᱰᱚ-ᱤᱣᱨᱚᱯᱤᱭᱚ ᱯᱟᱹᱨᱥᱤ ᱢᱟᱹᱫᱽ ᱠᱷᱚᱱ ᱱᱚᱶᱟ ᱜᱮ ᱢᱤᱫ ᱡᱤᱭᱤᱫ ᱟᱠᱟᱱ ᱯᱟᱹᱨᱥᱤ ᱠᱟᱱᱟ ᱾[᱑᱐][᱑᱑][᱑᱒][᱑᱓] ᱯᱟᱠᱤᱥᱛᱟᱱ ᱨᱮ ᱟᱹᱰᱤ ᱵᱟᱹᱲᱛᱤ ᱮ ᱯᱚᱧᱡᱟᱵᱤ ᱯᱟᱹᱨᱥᱤ ᱠᱚ ᱨᱚᱲ ᱮᱫᱼᱟ ᱾[᱑᱔] ᱥᱤᱧᱚᱛ ᱨᱮ ᱱᱚᱶᱟ ᱫᱚ ᱑᱑ ᱟ ᱱᱟᱜ ᱡᱚᱛᱚ ᱠᱷᱚᱱ ᱵᱟᱹᱲᱛᱤ ᱨᱚᱲᱮᱫ ᱯᱟᱹᱨᱥᱤ ᱠᱟᱱᱟ[᱑᱕] ᱟᱨ ᱥᱤᱧᱚᱛᱤᱭᱟᱹ ᱩᱯ-ᱢᱟᱦᱟᱫᱮᱥ ᱨᱮ ᱛᱮᱥᱟᱨ ᱵᱟᱹᱲᱛᱤ ᱨᱚᱲᱮᱫ ᱯᱟᱹᱨᱥᱤ ᱠᱟᱱᱟ ᱾ ᱡᱩᱢᱤᱫ ᱯᱚᱱᱚᱛ (US) ᱨᱮ ᱱᱚᱶᱟ ᱫᱚ ᱯᱩᱱ ᱟᱱᱟᱜ ᱵᱟᱹᱲᱛᱤ ᱨᱚᱲᱮᱫ ᱯᱟᱹᱨᱥᱤ ᱠᱟᱱᱟ ᱾[᱑᱖] ᱟᱨ ᱠᱟᱱᱟᱰᱟ ᱨᱮ ᱤᱝᱞᱤᱥ ᱯᱟᱹᱨᱥᱤ ᱟᱨ ᱯᱷᱨᱮᱸᱪ ᱯᱟᱹᱨᱥᱤ ᱛᱟᱭᱚᱢ ᱨᱮ ᱯᱚᱧᱡᱟᱵᱤ ᱫᱚ ᱛᱮᱥᱟᱨ ᱵᱟᱹᱲᱛᱤ ᱨᱚᱲᱮᱫ ᱠᱟᱱ ᱯᱟᱹᱨᱥᱤ ᱠᱟᱱᱟ ᱾[᱑᱗][᱑᱘] ᱚᱱᱟ ᱥᱟᱶᱛᱮ ᱡᱩᱢᱤᱫᱽ ᱯᱚᱱᱚᱛ ᱟᱨᱚᱵᱽ, ᱡᱩᱢᱤᱫᱽ ᱯᱚᱱᱚᱛ (US), ᱥᱟᱣᱫᱤ ᱟᱨᱚᱵᱽ ᱟᱨ ᱚᱥᱴᱨᱮᱞᱤᱭᱟ ᱨᱮᱦᱚᱸ ᱱᱚᱶᱟ ᱯᱟᱹᱨᱥᱤ ᱠᱚ ᱨᱚᱲ ᱠᱟᱱᱟ ᱾

ᱡᱚᱜᱚᱼᱯᱟᱹᱨᱥᱤ ᱟᱨ ᱥᱟᱹᱜᱟᱭᱟᱱ ᱯᱟᱹᱨᱥᱤᱥᱟᱯᱲᱟᱣ

ᱯᱚᱧᱡᱟᱵᱤ ᱨᱮᱱᱟ ᱡᱚᱚᱼᱯᱟᱹᱨᱥᱤ ᱞᱮᱠᱟᱛᱮ ᱢᱟᱡᱷᱤ, ᱫᱚᱣᱟᱵᱤ, ᱢᱚᱞᱣᱟᱭ, ᱯᱚᱣᱟᱫᱷᱤ, ᱯᱚᱛᱷᱚᱦᱟᱨᱤ ᱟᱨ ᱢᱩᱞᱛᱟᱱᱤ ᱮᱢᱟᱱ ᱯᱟᱹᱨᱥᱤ ᱠᱚ ᱢᱮᱱᱟᱼᱟ ᱾ ᱥᱟᱫᱷᱟᱨᱚᱱ ᱛᱮ ᱤᱱᱰᱚ-ᱟᱨᱭᱚ ᱯᱟᱹᱨᱥᱤ ᱮᱴᱟᱜ ᱡᱚᱚ-ᱯᱟᱹᱨᱥᱤ (ᱩᱯᱼᱯᱟᱹᱥᱤ) ᱥᱟᱶ ᱡᱩᱲᱟᱹᱣ ᱮᱴᱠᱮᱴᱚᱬᱮ ᱫᱷᱟᱨᱟ ᱜᱮᱭᱟ ᱾[᱑᱙][᱒᱐] ᱵᱽᱨᱤᱴᱤᱥ ᱯᱟᱹᱱᱟᱹᱨᱥᱤᱭᱟᱹ ᱡᱚᱨᱡᱽ ᱟᱵᱽᱨᱟᱦᱚᱢ ᱜᱽᱨᱤᱭᱮᱨᱥᱚᱱ ᱚᱞ ᱞᱮᱫ ᱛᱟᱦᱮᱸᱱᱟᱭ ᱵᱟᱝᱢᱟ, ᱯᱟᱪᱮ ᱯᱚᱧᱡᱟᱵᱤ ᱞᱮᱠᱟᱛᱮ ᱛᱮ ᱵᱟᱰᱟᱭᱚᱜ ᱠᱟᱱ ᱡᱚᱜᱚᱼᱯᱟᱹᱨᱥᱤ ᱨᱮᱱᱟᱜ ᱢᱤᱫ ᱩᱴ ᱯᱚᱧᱡᱟᱵᱽ ᱨᱮᱱᱟᱜ ᱨᱤᱫᱟᱹᱭ ᱛᱷᱟᱱ, ᱥᱟᱝ ᱱᱟᱹᱭ ᱟᱲᱮ (ᱥᱤᱱᱫᱷᱩ ᱩᱯᱚᱛᱭᱚᱠᱟ) ᱨᱮᱱᱟᱜ ᱮᱛᱚᱢ ᱟᱨ ᱯᱟᱪᱮ ᱮᱞᱟᱠᱟ ᱥᱟᱶᱛᱮ ᱯᱩᱱᱭᱟᱹ ᱪᱟᱸᱜᱟ ᱟᱰᱟ ᱨᱮᱱᱟᱜ ᱞᱟᱛᱟᱨ ᱮᱞᱟᱠᱟ ᱨᱮ ᱠᱚ ᱵᱮᱵᱷᱟᱨᱮᱫᱼᱟ ᱾



  1. "Världens 100 största språk 2010" (The World's 100 Largest Languages in 2010), in Nationalencyklopedin
  2. "Punjabi". languagesgulper.com. Retrieved 29 ᱢᱟᱨᱪ 2015. 
  3. "Census of India: Abstract of speakers' strength of languages and mother tongues –2001". 
  4. "Census of India: Abstract of speakers' strength of languages and mother tongues –2001". Censusindia.gov.in. Retrieved 2016-02-02. 
  5. Hammarström, Harald; Forkel, Robert; Haspelmath, Martin, eds. (2017). "Panjabi". Glottolog 3.0. Jena, Germany: Max Planck Institute for the Science of Human History. 
  6. Laurie Bauer, 2007, The Linguistics Student's Handbook, Edinburgh
  7. Kachru, Braj B.; Kachru, Yamuna; Sridhar, S. N. (27 ᱢᱟᱨᱪ 2008). Language in South Asia. Cambridge University Press. p. 128. ISBN 978-1-139-46550-2. Retrieved 24 ᱚᱠᱴᱚᱵᱚᱨ 2014. Sikhs often write Punjabi in Gurmukhi, Hindus in Devanagari, and Muslims in Perso-Arabic. 
  8. "Världens 100 största språk 2010". Nationalencyklopedin (in Swedish). 2010. Retrieved 12 ᱯᱷᱮᱵᱽᱨᱩᱣᱟᱨᱤ 2014.  Unknown parameter |trans_title= ignored (help)
  9. "What Are The Top 10 Most Spoken Languages In The World?". 
  10. Barbara Lust, James Gair. Lexical Anaphors and Pronouns in Selected South Asian Languages. Page 637. Walter de Gruyter, 1999. ISBN 978-3-11-014388-1.
  11. "Punjabi language and the Gurmukhi and Shahmuhi scripts and pronunciation". Omniglot.com. Retrieved 2012-08-03. 
  12. Phonemic Inventory of Punjabi ᱪᱷᱟᱸᱪ:Wayback
  13. Geeti Sen. Crossing Boundaries. Orient Blackswan, 1997. ISBN 978-81-250-1341-9. Page 132. Quote: "Possibly, Punjabi is the only major South Asian language that has this kind of tonal character. There does seem to have been some speculation among scholars about the possible origin of Punjabi's tone-language character but without any final and convincing answer..."
  14. "Pakistan Census". Census.gov.pk. Retrieved 2014-01-04. 
  15. Census of India, 2001: population of Punjab by religion. Censusindia.gov.in. Retrieved 2012-01-18.
  16. "2011 Census: Main language (detailed), local authorities in England and Wales" (XLS). ONS. Retrieved 27 ᱮᱯᱨᱤᱞ 2013. 
  17. [᱑], Census Profile – Province/Territory
  18. [᱒], 2006 Census of Canada: Topic-based tabulations|Detailed Mother Tongue (103), Knowledge of Official Languages
  19. Masica 1991:25
  20. Burling 1970:chapter on India