ᱤᱱᱫᱳᱼᱟᱨᱡᱚ ᱯᱟᱹᱨᱥᱤᱠᱚ

ᱯᱟᱹᱨᱥᱤ ᱜᱷᱟᱨᱚᱸᱡᱽ

ᱤᱱᱫᱳ-ᱟᱨᱡᱚ ᱯᱟᱹᱨᱥᱤᱠᱚ ᱫᱚ ᱠᱚᱧᱮ ᱮᱥᱤᱭᱟ ᱨᱮᱱᱟᱜ ᱢᱤᱫ ᱢᱩᱬᱩᱛ ᱯᱟᱹᱨᱥᱤ ᱜᱷᱟᱨᱚᱸᱡᱽ ᱠᱟᱱᱟ ᱾ ᱱᱚᱶᱟ ᱫᱚ ᱤᱱᱫᱳ-ᱤᱣᱨᱳᱯᱤᱭᱟᱱ ᱯᱟᱹᱨᱥᱤ ᱜᱷᱟᱨᱚᱸᱡᱽ ᱨᱮᱱᱟᱜ ᱤᱱᱫᱳ-ᱤᱨᱟᱱᱤᱭᱟᱱ ᱪᱟᱸᱜᱟ ᱜᱷᱟᱨᱚᱸᱡᱽ ᱨᱮᱱᱟᱜ ᱢᱤᱫ ᱛᱷᱚᱠ ᱠᱟᱱᱟ ᱾ ᱵᱟᱨᱜᱮᱞ ᱢᱤᱫ ᱥᱟᱭ ᱥᱮᱨᱢᱟ (21st century) ᱨᱮᱱᱟᱜ ᱮᱛᱚᱦᱚᱵ ᱥᱮᱫ ᱱᱚᱶᱟ ᱯᱟᱹᱨᱥᱤ ᱜᱷᱟᱨᱚᱸᱡᱽ ᱨᱮᱱᱟᱜ ᱯᱟᱹᱨᱥᱤ ᱠᱚ ᱛᱮ ᱡᱮᱜᱮᱛ ᱨᱮᱱ ᱘᱐ ᱠᱳᱴᱤ ᱜᱟᱱ ᱦᱚᱲ ᱠᱟᱛᱷᱟ ᱠᱚ ᱨᱚᱲ-ᱮᱫ ᱠᱟᱱ ᱛᱟᱦᱮᱱᱟ ᱾ ᱤᱱᱫᱳ-ᱟᱨᱡᱚ ᱯᱟᱹᱨᱥᱤᱠᱚ ᱫᱚ ᱥᱤᱧᱚᱛ, ᱵᱟᱝᱞᱟᱫᱮᱥ, ᱯᱟᱠᱤᱥᱛᱟᱱ, ᱱᱮᱯᱟᱞ ᱟᱨ ᱥᱨᱤᱞᱚᱝᱠᱟ ᱨᱮᱠᱚ ᱨᱚᱲᱟ[᱒] ᱾ ᱚᱱᱟ ᱥᱟᱶ ᱛᱮ ᱮᱛᱚᱢ-ᱯᱟᱪᱮ ᱤᱣᱨᱳᱯ, ᱯᱟᱪᱮ ᱮᱥᱤᱭᱟ, ᱮᱛᱚᱢ ᱟᱢᱮᱨᱤᱠᱟ, ᱠᱚᱧᱮ ᱟᱯᱷᱨᱤᱠᱟ ᱟᱨ ᱚᱥᱴᱨᱮᱞᱤᱭᱟ ᱠᱚᱨᱮ ᱠᱚ ᱪᱟᱞᱟᱣ ᱵᱟᱥᱚᱜ ᱠᱟᱱ ᱤᱱᱫᱳ-ᱟᱨᱡᱚ ᱨᱚᱲ ᱦᱚᱲ ᱦᱚᱸ ᱱᱚᱶᱟ ᱯᱟᱹᱨᱥᱤ ᱠᱚᱛᱮ ᱠᱚ ᱨᱚᱲᱟ ᱾ ᱒᱐᱐ ᱠᱷᱚᱱ ᱦᱚᱸ ᱡᱟᱹᱥᱛᱤ ᱵᱟᱲᱟᱭ ᱟᱠᱟᱱ ᱤᱱᱫᱳ-ᱟᱨᱡᱚ ᱯᱟᱹᱨᱥᱤ ᱢᱮᱱᱟᱜᱼᱟ[᱓]

Indo-Aryan
Indic
ᱚᱛᱱᱚᱜ
ᱪᱷᱮᱨ
South Asia
ᱯᱟᱹᱱᱟᱹᱨᱥᱤ ᱦᱟᱹᱴᱤᱧIndo-European
ᱯᱨᱳᱴᱳᱼᱯᱟᱹᱨᱥᱤProto-Indo-Aryan
ᱟᱭᱮᱥᱳ ᱖᱓᱙ᱼ᱒ / inc
ᱞᱤᱝᱜᱩᱣᱟᱥᱯᱷᱮᱭᱟᱨ59= (phylozone)
ᱜᱞᱚᱴᱴᱚᱞᱚᱜᱽindo1321[᱑]
Present-day geographical distribution of the major Indo-Aryan language groups. Romani, Domari, Kholosi and Lomavren are outside the scope of the map.
  Chitrali (Dardic)
  Shina (Dardic)
  Kohistani (Dardic)
  Kashmiri (Dardic)
  Sindhi (Northwestern)
  Gujarati (Western)
  Bhili and Khandeshi (Western)
  Himachali (= W. Pahari, Northern)
  Garhwali-Kumaoni (= C. Pahari, Northern)
  Nepali (= E. Pahari, Northern)
  Eastern Hindi (Central)
  Bengali-Assamese (Eastern)
  Oriya (Eastern)
  Halbi (Eastern)
  Sinhala-Maldivian (Southern)
(not shown: Kunar (Dardic), Chinali-Lahuli)
Present-day geographical distribution of the major Indo-Aryan language groups. Romani, Domari, Kholosi and Lomavren are outside the scope of the map.
  ᱪᱤᱛᱨᱟᱞᱤ (ᱫᱟᱨᱫᱤᱠ)
  ᱥᱤᱱᱟ (ᱫᱟᱨᱫᱤᱠ)
  ᱠᱷᱳᱭᱥᱟᱱᱤ (ᱫᱟᱨᱫᱤᱠ)
  ᱠᱟᱥᱢᱤᱨᱤ (ᱫᱟᱨᱫᱤᱠ)
  ᱥᱤᱱᱫᱷᱤ (ᱮᱛᱚᱢ-ᱯᱟᱪᱮ)
  ᱜᱩᱡᱽᱨᱟᱴᱤ (ᱯᱟᱪᱮᱭᱟᱭ)
  ᱵᱷᱤᱞᱤ ᱟᱨ ᱠᱷᱟᱱᱫᱮᱥᱤ (ᱯᱟᱪᱮᱭᱟᱭ)
  ᱦᱤᱢᱟᱪᱚᱞᱤ (= ᱯ. ᱯᱟᱦᱟᱨᱤ, ᱮᱛᱚᱢ)
  ᱜᱟᱲᱣᱟᱞᱤ-ᱠᱩᱢᱟᱶᱱᱤ (= ᱛ. ᱯᱟᱦᱟᱨᱤ, ᱮᱛᱚᱢ)
  ᱱᱮᱯᱟᱞᱤ (= ᱥ. ᱯᱟᱦᱟᱨᱤ, ᱮᱛᱚᱢ)
  ᱵᱟᱝᱞᱟ-ᱟᱥᱟᱢᱤᱥ (ᱥᱟᱢᱟᱝ ᱥᱮᱫ)
  ᱳᱰᱤᱭᱟ (ᱥᱟᱢᱟᱝ ᱥᱮᱫ)
  ᱦᱟᱞᱵᱤ (ᱥᱟᱢᱟᱝ ᱥᱮᱫ)

(ᱵᱟᱝ ᱩᱫᱩᱜ: ᱠᱩᱱᱟᱨ (ᱫᱟᱨᱫᱤᱠ), ᱪᱤᱱᱟᱞᱤ-ᱞᱟᱦᱩᱞᱤ)

ᱱᱮᱵᱮᱛᱟᱨ ᱤᱱᱫᱳ-ᱟᱨᱡᱚ ᱯᱟᱹᱨᱥᱤᱠᱚ ᱢᱟᱬᱮ ᱤᱱᱫᱳ-ᱟᱨᱡᱚ ᱯᱟᱹᱨᱥᱤᱠᱚ ᱪᱮᱫᱞᱮᱠᱟ ᱯᱳᱭᱞᱳ ᱥᱚᱝᱠᱨᱤᱛ, ᱛᱟᱞᱢᱟ ᱤᱱᱫᱳ-ᱟᱨᱡᱚ ᱯᱟᱹᱨᱥᱤ (ᱥᱮ ᱯᱨᱟᱠᱨᱤᱛ) ᱦᱚᱛᱮᱛᱮ ᱦᱮᱡᱽ ᱟᱠᱟᱱᱟ ᱾ ᱯᱳᱭᱞᱳ ᱯᱟᱹᱨᱥᱤ ᱞᱮᱠᱟᱛᱮ ᱢᱟᱨᱟᱝ ᱯᱟᱹᱨᱥᱤ ᱠᱚ ᱦᱩᱭᱩᱜ ᱠᱟᱱᱟ ᱦᱤᱱᱫᱤ-ᱩᱨᱫᱩ (᱓᱒᱙ ᱢᱤᱞᱤᱭᱚᱱ ᱜᱟᱱ), ᱵᱟᱝᱞᱟ (᱒᱔᱒ ᱢᱤᱞᱤᱭᱚᱱ), ᱯᱚᱧᱡᱟᱵᱤ (᱑᱒᱐ ᱢᱤᱞᱤᱭᱚᱱ ᱜᱟᱱ), ᱢᱟᱨᱟᱴᱷᱤ (᱑᱑᱒ ᱢᱤᱞᱤᱭᱚᱱ), ᱜᱩᱡᱽᱨᱟᱴᱤ (᱖᱐ ᱢᱤᱞᱤᱭᱚᱱ), ᱨᱟᱡᱚᱥᱛᱷᱟᱱᱤ (᱕᱘ ᱢᱤᱞᱤᱭᱚᱱ), ᱵᱷᱳᱡᱽᱯᱩᱨᱤ (᱕᱑ ᱢᱤᱞᱤᱭᱚᱱ), ᱳᱰᱤᱭᱟ (᱓᱕ ᱢᱤᱞᱤᱭᱚᱱ), ᱢᱚᱭᱛᱷᱤᱞᱤ (᱓᱔ ᱢᱤᱞᱤᱭᱚᱱ ᱜᱟᱱ), ᱥᱤᱱᱫᱷᱤ (᱒᱕ ᱢᱤᱞᱤᱭᱚᱱ), ᱱᱮᱯᱟᱞᱤ (᱑᱖ ᱢᱤᱞᱤᱭᱚᱱ), ᱟᱥᱟᱢᱤᱥ (᱑᱕ ᱢᱤᱞᱤᱭᱚᱱ) ᱟᱨ ᱪᱷᱚᱛᱤᱜᱚᱲᱤ (᱑᱘ ᱢᱤᱞᱤᱭᱚᱱ) ᱾ ᱒᱐᱐᱕ ᱨᱮᱱᱟᱜ ᱢᱤᱫ ᱟᱢᱫᱟᱡᱽ ᱞᱮᱠᱟᱛᱮ ᱤᱱᱫᱳ-ᱟᱨᱡᱚ ᱯᱟᱹᱨᱥᱤᱠᱚ ᱨᱮᱱ ᱞᱮᱠᱷᱟᱜᱩᱴ ᱵᱩᱱᱤᱭᱟᱹᱫᱤ ᱨᱚᱲ ᱦᱚᱲ (native speakers) ᱙᱐ ᱠᱳᱴᱤ ᱜᱟᱱ ᱢᱮᱱᱟᱜ ᱠᱚᱣᱟ[᱔]

ᱦᱟᱹᱴᱤᱧ

ᱥᱟᱯᱲᱟᱣ

ᱫᱟᱨᱫᱤᱠ

ᱥᱟᱯᱲᱟᱣ

ᱫᱟᱨᱫᱤᱠ ᱯᱟᱹᱨᱥᱤᱠᱚ ᱫᱚ ᱤᱱᱫᱳ-ᱟᱨᱡᱚ ᱯᱟᱹᱨᱥᱤᱠᱚ ᱨᱮᱱᱟᱜ ᱢᱤᱫ ᱦᱟᱹᱴᱤᱧ ᱠᱟᱱᱟ ᱾ ᱱᱚᱶᱟ ᱫᱚ ᱥᱤᱧᱚᱛ ᱩᱯᱚᱢᱟᱦᱫᱮᱥ ᱨᱮᱱᱟᱜ ᱮᱛᱚᱢ ᱢᱩᱪᱟᱹᱫ ᱥᱮᱫ ᱨᱮ ᱠᱚ ᱨᱚᱲᱟ ᱾ ᱱᱚᱶᱟ ᱦᱟᱹᱴᱤᱧ ᱨᱮᱱᱟᱜ ᱯᱟᱹᱨᱥᱤ ᱠᱚ ᱫᱚ :

ᱠᱚᱸᱭᱮ ᱴᱚᱴᱷᱟᱠᱤᱭᱟᱹ

ᱥᱟᱯᱲᱟᱣ

ᱠᱚᱸᱭᱮ ᱤᱱᱫᱳ-ᱟᱨᱡᱚ ᱯᱟᱹᱨᱥᱤᱠᱚ, ᱱᱚᱶᱟ ᱫᱚ ᱯᱟᱦᱟᱨᱤ (ᱵᱩᱨᱩ) ᱯᱟᱹᱨᱥᱤ ᱢᱮᱱᱛᱮ ᱦᱚᱸ ᱵᱟᱲᱟᱭᱚᱜᱼᱟ ᱾ ᱱᱚᱶᱟ ᱠᱚ ᱯᱟᱹᱨᱥᱤ ᱫᱚ ᱥᱤᱧᱚᱛ ᱩᱯᱚᱢᱟᱦᱫᱮᱥ ᱨᱮᱱᱟᱜ ᱦᱮᱢᱟᱞᱵᱩᱨᱩ ᱴᱚᱴᱷᱟ ᱠᱚᱨᱮ ᱠᱚ ᱨᱚᱲᱟ ᱾ ᱱᱚᱶᱟ ᱦᱟᱹᱴᱤᱧ ᱨᱮᱱᱟᱜ ᱯᱟᱹᱨᱥᱤ ᱠᱚ ᱫᱚ :

  • ᱥᱟᱢᱟᱝ ᱯᱟᱦᱟᱨᱤ: ᱱᱮᱯᱟᱞᱤ, ᱡᱩᱢᱞᱤ, ᱰᱮᱴᱚᱞᱤ;
  • ᱯᱟᱪᱮ ᱯᱟᱦᱟᱨᱤ(ᱦᱤᱢᱟᱪᱚᱞᱤ): ᱰᱳᱜᱨᱤ, ᱠᱟᱝᱨᱤ, ᱵᱷᱟᱫᱟᱨᱣᱟᱦᱤ, ᱪᱩᱨᱟᱦᱤ, ᱵᱷᱟᱛᱮᱭᱟᱞᱤ, ᱵᱤᱞᱟᱥᱯᱩᱨᱤ, ᱪᱟᱢᱵᱮᱞᱤ, ᱜᱟᱰᱰᱤ, ᱯᱟᱝᱣᱟᱞᱤ, ᱢᱟᱱᱰᱮᱞᱤ, ᱢᱟᱦᱟᱥᱩ, ᱯᱟᱦᱟᱨᱤ, ᱡᱟᱭᱩᱱᱥᱟᱨᱤ, ᱠᱩᱞᱞᱩ, ᱦᱤᱱᱫᱩᱨᱤ, ᱥᱨᱢᱟᱣᱨᱤ ᱾

ᱠᱚᱸᱭᱮ-ᱯᱟᱪᱮ ᱴᱚᱴᱷᱟᱠᱤᱭᱟᱹ

ᱥᱟᱯᱲᱟᱣ

ᱠᱚᱸᱭᱮ-ᱯᱟᱪᱮ ᱤᱱᱫᱳ-ᱟᱨᱡᱚ ᱯᱟᱹᱨᱥᱤᱠᱚ ᱫᱚ ᱥᱤᱧᱚᱛ ᱩᱯᱚᱢᱟᱦᱫᱮᱥ ᱨᱮᱱᱟᱜ ᱮᱛᱚᱢ-ᱯᱟᱪᱮ ᱴᱚᱴᱷᱟ ᱠᱚᱨᱮ ᱠᱚ ᱨᱚᱲᱟ ᱾ ᱯᱚᱧᱡᱟᱵᱤ ᱱᱚᱶᱟ ᱦᱟᱹᱴᱤᱧ ᱨᱮᱱᱟᱜ ᱥᱟᱱᱟᱢ ᱠᱷᱚᱱ ᱢᱟᱨᱟᱝ ᱯᱟᱹᱨᱥᱤ ᱠᱟᱱᱟ ᱾

  • ᱯᱚᱧᱡᱟᱵᱤ

ᱯᱟᱪᱮ ᱴᱚᱴᱷᱟᱠᱤᱭᱟᱹ

ᱥᱟᱯᱲᱟᱣ

ᱯᱟᱪᱮ ᱤᱱᱫᱳ-ᱟᱨᱡᱚ ᱯᱟᱹᱨᱥᱤᱠᱚ ᱫᱚ ᱥᱤᱧᱚᱛ ᱨᱮᱱᱟᱜ ᱛᱟᱞᱢᱟ ᱟᱨ ᱯᱟᱪᱮ ᱴᱚᱴᱷᱟ ᱚᱱᱟ ᱥᱟᱶ ᱚᱱᱟ ᱥᱩᱨ ᱯᱟᱠᱤᱥᱛᱟᱱ ᱴᱚᱴᱷᱟ ᱠᱚᱨᱮ ᱦᱚᱸ ᱱᱚᱶᱟ ᱯᱟᱹᱨᱥᱤ ᱠᱚ ᱨᱚᱲᱟ ᱾

  • ᱠᱷᱟᱱᱫᱮᱥᱤ
  • ᱞᱳᱢᱵᱟᱫᱤ
  • ᱰᱳᱢᱟᱠᱤ

ᱛᱟᱞᱢᱟ ᱴᱚᱴᱷᱟᱠᱤᱭᱟᱹ (ᱢᱚᱫᱷᱭᱚ ᱥᱮ ᱦᱤᱱᱫᱤ)

ᱥᱟᱯᱲᱟᱣ
  • ᱯᱟᱪᱮ ᱦᱤᱱᱫᱤ: ᱦᱤᱱᱫᱩᱥᱛᱟᱱᱤ (ᱢᱟᱱᱚᱠ ᱦᱤᱱᱫᱤ ᱟᱨ ᱢᱟᱱᱚᱠ ᱩᱨᱫᱩ), ᱵᱨᱚᱡ, ᱵᱩᱱᱫᱮᱞᱤ;
  • ᱥᱟᱢᱟᱝ ᱦᱤᱱᱫᱤ: ᱵᱟᱜᱷᱮᱞᱤ, ᱪᱷᱚᱛᱤᱜᱚᱲᱤ,

ᱥᱟᱢᱟᱝ ᱴᱚᱴᱷᱟᱠᱤᱭᱟᱹ

ᱥᱟᱯᱲᱟᱣ
  • ᱦᱞᱵᱤᱠ

ᱮᱛᱚᱢ ᱴᱚᱴᱷᱟᱠᱤᱭᱟᱹ

ᱥᱟᱯᱲᱟᱣ

ᱱᱟᱜᱟᱢ

ᱥᱟᱯᱲᱟᱣ

ᱯᱨᱳᱴᱳ-ᱤᱱᱫᱳ-ᱟᱨᱡᱚ

ᱥᱟᱯᱲᱟᱣ

ᱯᱨᱳᱴᱳ-ᱤᱱᱫᱳᱼᱟᱨᱡᱚ ᱫᱚ ᱤᱱᱫᱳ-ᱟᱨᱡᱚ ᱯᱟᱹᱨᱥᱤᱠᱚ ᱨᱮᱱᱟᱜ ᱢᱤᱫ ᱵᱮᱱᱟᱣ ᱨᱩᱣᱟᱹᱨ ᱯᱨᱳᱴᱳ-ᱯᱟᱹᱨᱥᱤ ᱠᱟᱱᱟ ᱾ ᱱᱚᱶᱟ ᱨᱮᱱᱟᱜ ᱠᱟᱨᱚᱱ ᱫᱚ ᱢᱟᱬᱮ-ᱵᱳᱭᱫᱤᱠ ᱤᱱᱫᱳ-ᱟᱨᱡᱚ ᱦᱚᱲ ᱠᱚᱣᱟᱜ ᱯᱟᱹᱨᱥᱤ ᱵᱮᱱᱟᱣ ᱨᱩᱣᱟᱹᱨ ᱠᱟᱱᱟ ᱾ ᱯᱨᱳᱴᱳ-ᱤᱱᱫᱳ-ᱟᱨᱡᱚ ᱢᱮᱱ ᱫᱚ ᱢᱟᱬᱮ ᱤᱱᱫᱳ-ᱟᱨᱡᱚ ᱨᱮᱱ ᱦᱟᱯᱲᱟᱢᱠᱚ (᱑᱕᱐᱐-᱓᱐᱐ BCE), ᱡᱟᱦᱟ ᱫᱚ ᱥᱚᱡᱷᱮ ᱵᱳᱭᱫᱤᱠ ᱟᱨ ᱢᱤᱛᱟᱱᱤ-ᱟᱨᱡᱚ ᱢᱮᱱᱛᱮ ᱵᱟᱲᱟᱭᱚᱜᱼᱟ ᱾

ᱥᱤᱧᱚᱛ ᱩᱯᱚᱢᱟᱦᱫᱮᱥ

ᱥᱟᱯᱲᱟᱣ

ᱢᱟᱬᱮ ᱤᱱᱫᱳ-ᱟᱨᱡᱚ

ᱥᱟᱯᱲᱟᱣ

ᱛᱟᱞᱢᱟ ᱤᱱᱫᱳ-ᱟᱨᱡᱚ (ᱯᱨᱟᱠᱨᱤᱛ)

ᱥᱟᱯᱲᱟᱣ

ᱱᱟᱶᱟ ᱤᱱᱫᱳ-ᱟᱨᱡᱚ

ᱥᱟᱯᱲᱟᱣ

ᱥᱤᱧᱚᱛ ᱩᱯᱚᱢᱟᱦᱫᱮᱥ ᱵᱟᱨᱦᱮ

ᱥᱟᱯᱲᱟᱣ

ᱰᱳᱢᱟᱨᱤ

ᱥᱟᱯᱲᱟᱣ

ᱞᱳᱢᱟᱵᱷᱨᱮᱱ

ᱥᱟᱯᱲᱟᱣ

ᱨᱳᱢᱟᱱᱤ

ᱥᱟᱯᱲᱟᱣ

ᱟᱨᱦᱚᱸ ᱧᱮᱞ ᱢᱮ

ᱥᱟᱯᱲᱟᱣ

ᱵᱟᱨᱦᱮ ᱡᱚᱱᱚᱲ

ᱥᱟᱯᱲᱟᱣ

ᱥᱟᱹᱠᱷᱭᱟᱹᱛ

ᱥᱟᱯᱲᱟᱣ
  1. Hammarström, Harald; Forkel, Robert; Haspelmath, Martin, eds. (2017). "Indo-Aryan". Glottolog 3.0. Jena, Germany: Max Planck Institute for the Science of Human History. {{cite book}}: Unknown parameter |chapterurl= ignored (help)
  2. "Overview of Indo-Aryan languages". Encyclopædia Britannica. Retrieved 8 July 2018.
  3. Various counts depend on where the line is drawn between a "dialect" and a "language".[ᱥᱟᱹᱠᱷᱭᱟᱹᱛ ᱞᱟᱹᱠᱛᱤ ᱠᱟᱱᱟ] Glottolog 4.1 lists 224 languages.
  4. Edwin Francis Bryant; Laurie L. Patton (2005). The Indo-Aryan Controversy: Evidence and Inference in Indian History. Routledge. pp. 246–247. ISBN 978-0-7007-1463-6.