ᱤᱱᱫᱳᱼᱟᱨᱡᱚ ᱯᱟᱹᱨᱥᱤᱠᱚ ᱫᱚ ᱠᱚᱧᱮ ᱮᱥᱤᱭᱟ ᱨᱮᱱᱟᱜ ᱢᱤᱫ ᱢᱩᱬᱩᱛ ᱯᱟᱹᱨᱥᱤ ᱜᱷᱟᱨᱚᱸᱡᱽ ᱠᱟᱱᱟ ᱾ ᱱᱚᱶᱟ ᱫᱚ ᱤᱱᱫᱳᱼᱤᱣᱨᱳᱯᱤᱭᱟᱱ ᱯᱟᱹᱨᱥᱤ ᱜᱷᱟᱨᱚᱸᱡᱽ ᱨᱮᱱᱟᱜ ᱤᱱᱫᱳᱼᱤᱨᱟᱱᱤᱭᱟᱱ ᱪᱟᱸᱜᱟ ᱜᱷᱟᱨᱚᱸᱡᱽ ᱨᱮᱱᱟᱜ ᱢᱤᱫ ᱛᱷᱚᱠ ᱠᱟᱱᱟ ᱾ ᱵᱟᱨᱜᱮᱞ ᱢᱤᱫ ᱥᱟᱭ ᱥᱮᱨᱢᱟ (21st century) ᱨᱮᱱᱟᱜ ᱮᱛᱚᱦᱚᱵ ᱥᱮᱫ ᱱᱚᱶᱟ ᱯᱟᱹᱨᱥᱤ ᱜᱷᱟᱨᱚᱸᱡᱽ ᱨᱮᱱᱟᱜ ᱯᱟᱹᱨᱥᱤ ᱠᱚ ᱛᱮ ᱡᱮᱜᱮᱛ ᱨᱮᱱ ᱘᱐ ᱠᱳᱴᱤ ᱜᱟᱱ ᱦᱚᱲ ᱠᱟᱛᱷᱟ ᱠᱚ ᱨᱚᱲᱼᱮᱫ ᱠᱟᱱ ᱛᱟᱦᱮᱱᱟ ᱾ ᱤᱱᱫᱳᱼᱟᱨᱡᱚ ᱯᱟᱹᱨᱥᱤᱠᱚ ᱫᱚ ᱥᱤᱧᱚᱛ, ᱵᱟᱝᱞᱟᱫᱮᱥ, ᱯᱟᱠᱤᱥᱛᱟᱱ, ᱱᱮᱯᱟᱞ ᱟᱨ ᱥᱨᱤᱞᱚᱝᱠᱟ ᱨᱮᱠᱚ ᱨᱚᱲᱼᱟ[᱒] ᱾ ᱚᱱᱟ ᱥᱟᱶ ᱛᱮ ᱮᱛᱚᱢᱼᱯᱟᱪᱮ ᱤᱣᱨᱳᱯ, ᱯᱟᱪᱮ ᱮᱥᱤᱭᱟ, ᱮᱛᱚᱢ ᱟᱢᱮᱨᱤᱠᱟ, ᱠᱚᱧᱮ ᱟᱯᱷᱨᱤᱠᱟ ᱟᱨ ᱚᱥᱴᱨᱮᱞᱤᱭᱟ ᱠᱚᱨᱮ ᱠᱚ ᱪᱟᱞᱟᱣ ᱵᱟᱥᱚᱜ ᱠᱟᱱ ᱤᱱᱫᱳᱼᱟᱨᱡᱚ ᱨᱚᱲ ᱦᱚᱲ ᱦᱚᱸ ᱱᱚᱶᱟ ᱯᱟᱹᱨᱥᱤ ᱠᱚᱛᱮ ᱠᱚ ᱨᱚᱲᱼᱟ ᱾ ᱒᱐᱐ ᱠᱷᱚᱱ ᱦᱚᱸ ᱡᱟᱹᱥᱛᱤ ᱵᱟᱲᱟᱭ ᱟᱠᱟᱱ ᱤᱱᱫᱳᱼᱟᱨᱡᱚ ᱯᱟᱹᱨᱥᱤ ᱢᱮᱱᱟᱜᱼᱟ[᱓]

Indo-Aryan
Indic
Geographic
distribution
South Asia
Linguistic classification Indo-European
Proto-language Proto-Indo-Aryan
ISO 639-2 / 5 inc
Linguasphere 59= (phylozone)
Glottolog indo1321[᱑]
Indo-Aryan language map.svg
Present-day geographical distribution of the major Indo-Aryan language groups. Romani, Domari, Kholosi and Lomavren are outside the scope of the map.
  Chitrali (Dardic)
  Shina (Dardic)
  Kohistani (Dardic)
  Kashmiri (Dardic)
  Sindhi (Northwestern)
  Gujarati (Western)
  Bhili and Khandeshi (Western)
  Himachali (= W. Pahari, Northern)
  Garhwali-Kumaoni (= C. Pahari, Northern)
  Nepali (= E. Pahari, Northern)
  Eastern Hindi (Central)
  Bengali-Assamese (Eastern)
  Oriya (Eastern)
  Halbi (Eastern)
  Sinhala-Maldivian (Southern)
(not shown: Kunar (Dardic), Chinali-Lahuli)
Present-day geographical distribution of the major Indo-Aryan language groups. Romani, Domari, Kholosi and Lomavren are outside the scope of the map.
  ᱪᱤᱛᱨᱟᱞᱤ (ᱫᱟᱨᱫᱤᱠ)
  ᱥᱤᱱᱟ (ᱫᱟᱨᱫᱤᱠ)
  ᱠᱷᱳᱭᱥᱟᱱᱤ (ᱫᱟᱨᱫᱤᱠ)
  ᱠᱟᱥᱢᱤᱨᱤ (ᱫᱟᱨᱫᱤᱠ)
  ᱥᱤᱱᱫᱷᱤ (ᱮᱛᱚᱢᱼᱯᱟᱪᱮ)
  ᱜᱩᱡᱽᱨᱟᱴᱤ (ᱯᱟᱪᱮᱭᱟᱭ)
  ᱵᱷᱤᱞᱤ ᱟᱨ ᱠᱷᱟᱱᱫᱮᱥᱤ (ᱯᱟᱪᱮᱭᱟᱭ)
  ᱦᱤᱢᱟᱪᱚᱞᱤ (= ᱯ. ᱯᱟᱦᱟᱨᱤ, ᱮᱛᱚᱢ)
  ᱜᱟᱲᱣᱟᱞᱤ-ᱠᱩᱢᱟᱶᱱᱤ (= ᱛ. ᱯᱟᱦᱟᱨᱤ, ᱮᱛᱚᱢ)
  ᱱᱮᱯᱟᱞᱤ (= ᱥ. ᱯᱟᱦᱟᱨᱤ, ᱮᱛᱚᱢ)
  ᱵᱟᱝᱞᱟᱼᱟᱥᱟᱢᱤᱥ (ᱥᱟᱢᱟᱝ ᱥᱮᱫ)
  ᱳᱰᱤᱭᱟ (ᱥᱟᱢᱟᱝ ᱥᱮᱫ)
  ᱦᱟᱞᱵᱤ (ᱥᱟᱢᱟᱝ ᱥᱮᱫ)

(ᱵᱟᱝ ᱩᱫᱩᱜ: ᱠᱩᱱᱟᱨ (ᱫᱟᱨᱫᱤᱠ), ᱪᱤᱱᱟᱞᱤᱼᱞᱟᱦᱩᱞᱤ)

ᱱᱮᱵᱮᱛᱟᱨ ᱤᱱᱫᱳᱼᱟᱨᱡᱚ ᱯᱟᱹᱨᱥᱤᱠᱚ ᱢᱟᱬᱮ ᱤᱱᱫᱳᱼᱟᱨᱡᱚ ᱯᱟᱹᱨᱥᱤᱠᱚ ᱪᱮᱫᱞᱮᱠᱟ ᱯᱳᱭᱞᱳ ᱥᱚᱝᱠᱨᱤᱛ, ᱛᱟᱞᱢᱟ ᱤᱱᱫᱳᱼᱟᱨᱡᱚ ᱯᱟᱹᱨᱥᱤ (ᱥᱮ ᱯᱨᱟᱠᱨᱤᱛ) ᱦᱚᱛᱮᱛᱮ ᱦᱮᱡᱽ ᱟᱠᱟᱱᱟ ᱾ ᱯᱳᱭᱞᱳ ᱯᱟᱹᱨᱥᱤ ᱞᱮᱠᱟᱛᱮ ᱢᱟᱨᱟᱝ ᱯᱟᱹᱨᱥᱤ ᱠᱚ ᱦᱩᱭᱩᱜ ᱠᱟᱱᱟ ᱦᱤᱱᱫᱤ-ᱩᱨᱫᱩ (᱓᱒᱙ ᱢᱤᱞᱤᱭᱚᱱ ᱜᱟᱱ), ᱵᱟᱝᱞᱟ (᱒᱔᱒ ᱢᱤᱞᱤᱭᱚᱱ), ᱯᱚᱧᱡᱟᱵᱤ (᱑᱒᱐ ᱢᱤᱞᱤᱭᱚᱱ ᱜᱟᱱ), ᱢᱟᱨᱟᱴᱷᱤ (᱑᱑᱒ ᱢᱤᱞᱤᱭᱚᱱ), ᱜᱩᱡᱽᱨᱟᱴᱤ (᱖᱐ ᱢᱤᱞᱤᱭᱚᱱ), ᱨᱟᱡᱚᱥᱛᱷᱟᱱᱤ (᱕᱘ ᱢᱤᱞᱤᱭᱚᱱ), ᱵᱷᱳᱡᱽᱯᱩᱨᱤ (᱕᱑ ᱢᱤᱞᱤᱭᱚᱱ), ᱳᱰᱤᱭᱟ (᱓᱕ ᱢᱤᱞᱤᱭᱚᱱ), ᱢᱚᱭᱛᱷᱤᱞᱤ (᱓᱔ ᱢᱤᱞᱤᱭᱚᱱ ᱜᱟᱱ), ᱥᱤᱱᱫᱷᱤ (᱒᱕ ᱢᱤᱞᱤᱭᱚᱱ), ᱱᱮᱯᱟᱞᱤ (᱑᱖ ᱢᱤᱞᱤᱭᱚᱱ), ᱟᱥᱟᱢᱤᱥ (᱑᱕ ᱢᱤᱞᱤᱭᱚᱱ) ᱟᱨ ᱪᱷᱚᱛᱤᱜᱚᱲᱤ (᱑᱘ ᱢᱤᱞᱤᱭᱚᱱ) ᱾ ᱒᱐᱐᱕ ᱨᱮᱱᱟᱜ ᱢᱤᱫ ᱟᱢᱫᱟᱡᱽ ᱞᱮᱠᱟᱛᱮ ᱤᱱᱫᱳᱼᱟᱨᱡᱚ ᱯᱟᱹᱨᱥᱤᱠᱚ ᱨᱮᱱ ᱞᱮᱠᱷᱟᱜᱩᱴ ᱵᱩᱱᱤᱭᱟᱹᱫᱤ ᱨᱚᱲ ᱦᱚᱲ (native speakers) ᱙᱐ ᱠᱳᱴᱤ ᱜᱟᱱ ᱢᱮᱱᱟᱜ ᱠᱚᱣᱟ[᱔]

ᱦᱟᱹᱴᱤᱧᱥᱟᱯᱲᱟᱣ

ᱫᱟᱨᱫᱤᱠᱥᱟᱯᱲᱟᱣ

ᱫᱟᱨᱫᱤᱠ ᱯᱟᱹᱨᱥᱤᱠᱚ ᱫᱚ ᱤᱱᱫᱳᱼᱟᱨᱡᱚ ᱯᱟᱹᱨᱥᱤᱠᱚ ᱨᱮᱱᱟᱜ ᱢᱤᱫ ᱦᱟᱹᱴᱤᱧ ᱠᱟᱱᱟ ᱾ ᱱᱚᱶᱟ ᱫᱚ ᱥᱤᱧᱚᱛ ᱩᱯᱚᱢᱟᱦᱫᱮᱥ ᱨᱮᱱᱟᱜ ᱮᱛᱚᱢ ᱢᱩᱪᱟᱹᱫ ᱥᱮᱫ ᱨᱮ ᱠᱚ ᱨᱚᱲᱼᱟ ᱾ ᱱᱚᱶᱟ ᱦᱟᱹᱴᱤᱧ ᱨᱮᱱᱟᱜ ᱯᱟᱹᱨᱥᱤ ᱠᱚ ᱫᱚ :

  • ᱠᱟᱥᱢᱤᱨᱤ
  • ᱥᱤᱱᱟ
  • ᱪᱤᱛᱨᱟᱞᱤ
  • ᱠᱳᱦᱤᱥᱛᱟᱱᱤ
  • ᱯᱟᱥᱟᱭ
  • ᱠᱩᱱᱟᱨ

ᱮᱛᱚᱢ ᱴᱚᱴᱷᱟᱠᱤᱭᱟᱹᱥᱟᱯᱲᱟᱣ

ᱮᱛᱚᱢ ᱤᱱᱫᱳᱼᱟᱨᱡᱚ ᱯᱟᱹᱨᱥᱤᱠᱚ, ᱱᱚᱶᱟ ᱫᱚ ᱯᱟᱦᱟᱨᱤ (ᱵᱩᱨᱩ) ᱯᱟᱹᱨᱥᱤ ᱢᱮᱱᱛᱮ ᱦᱚᱸ ᱵᱟᱲᱟᱭᱚᱜᱼᱟ ᱾ ᱱᱚᱶᱟ ᱠᱚ ᱯᱟᱹᱨᱥᱤ ᱫᱚ ᱥᱤᱧᱚᱛ ᱩᱯᱚᱢᱟᱦᱫᱮᱥ ᱨᱮᱱᱟᱜ ᱦᱮᱢᱟᱞᱵᱩᱨᱩ ᱴᱚᱴᱷᱟ ᱠᱚᱨᱮ ᱠᱚ ᱨᱚᱲᱼᱟ ᱾ ᱱᱚᱶᱟ ᱦᱟᱹᱴᱤᱧ ᱨᱮᱱᱟᱜ ᱯᱟᱹᱨᱥᱤ ᱠᱚ ᱫᱚ :

  • ᱥᱟᱢᱟᱝ ᱯᱟᱦᱟᱨᱤ: ᱱᱮᱯᱟᱞᱤ, ᱡᱩᱢᱞᱤ, ᱰᱮᱴᱚᱞᱤ;
  • ᱛᱟᱞᱢᱟ ᱯᱟᱦᱟᱨᱤ: ᱜᱟᱲᱣᱟᱞᱤ, ᱠᱩᱢᱟᱣᱱᱤ;
  • ᱯᱟᱪᱮ ᱯᱟᱦᱟᱨᱤ(ᱦᱤᱢᱟᱪᱚᱞᱤ): ᱰᱳᱜᱨᱤ, ᱠᱟᱝᱨᱤ, ᱵᱷᱟᱫᱟᱨᱣᱟᱦᱤ, ᱪᱩᱨᱟᱦᱤ, ᱵᱷᱟᱛᱮᱭᱟᱞᱤ, ᱵᱤᱞᱟᱥᱯᱩᱨᱤ, ᱪᱟᱢᱵᱮᱞᱤ, ᱜᱟᱰᱰᱤ, ᱯᱟᱝᱣᱟᱞᱤ, ᱢᱟᱱᱰᱮᱞᱤ, ᱢᱟᱦᱟᱥᱩ, ᱯᱟᱦᱟᱨᱤ, ᱡᱟᱭᱩᱱᱥᱟᱨᱤ, ᱠᱩᱞᱞᱩ, ᱦᱤᱱᱫᱩᱨᱤ, ᱥᱨᱢᱟᱣᱨᱤ ᱾

ᱮᱛᱚᱢᱼᱯᱟᱪᱮ ᱴᱚᱴᱷᱟᱠᱤᱭᱟᱹᱥᱟᱯᱲᱟᱣ

ᱮᱛᱚᱢᱼᱯᱟᱪᱮ ᱤᱱᱫᱳᱼᱟᱨᱡᱚ ᱯᱟᱹᱨᱥᱤᱠᱚ ᱫᱚ ᱥᱤᱧᱚᱛ ᱩᱯᱚᱢᱟᱦᱫᱮᱥ ᱨᱮᱱᱟᱜ ᱮᱛᱚᱢᱼᱯᱟᱪᱮ ᱴᱚᱴᱷᱟ ᱠᱚᱨᱮ ᱠᱚ ᱨᱚᱲᱼᱟ ᱾ ᱯᱚᱧᱡᱟᱵᱤ ᱱᱚᱶᱟ ᱦᱟᱹᱴᱤᱧ ᱨᱮᱱᱟᱜ ᱥᱟᱱᱟᱢ ᱠᱷᱚᱱ ᱢᱟᱨᱟᱝ ᱯᱟᱹᱨᱥᱤ ᱠᱟᱱᱟ ᱾

  • ᱯᱚᱧᱡᱟᱵᱤ

ᱯᱟᱪᱮ ᱴᱚᱴᱷᱟᱠᱤᱭᱟᱹᱥᱟᱯᱲᱟᱣ

ᱯᱟᱪᱮ ᱤᱱᱫᱳᱼᱟᱨᱡᱚ ᱯᱟᱹᱨᱥᱤᱠᱚ ᱫᱚ ᱥᱤᱧᱚᱛ ᱨᱮᱱᱟᱜ ᱛᱟᱞᱢᱟ ᱟᱨ ᱯᱟᱪᱮ ᱴᱚᱴᱷᱟ ᱚᱱᱟ ᱥᱟᱶ ᱚᱱᱟ ᱥᱩᱨ ᱯᱟᱠᱤᱥᱛᱟᱱ ᱴᱚᱴᱷᱟ ᱠᱚᱨᱮ ᱦᱚᱸ ᱱᱚᱶᱟ ᱯᱟᱹᱨᱥᱤ ᱠᱚ ᱨᱚᱲᱼᱟ ᱾

  • ᱠᱷᱟᱱᱫᱮᱥᱤ
  • ᱞᱳᱢᱵᱟᱫᱤ
  • ᱰᱳᱢᱟᱠᱤ

ᱛᱟᱞᱢᱟ ᱴᱚᱴᱷᱟᱠᱤᱭᱟᱹ (ᱢᱚᱫᱷᱭᱚ ᱥᱮ ᱦᱤᱱᱫᱤ)ᱥᱟᱯᱲᱟᱣ

  • ᱯᱟᱪᱮ ᱦᱤᱱᱫᱤ: ᱦᱤᱱᱫᱩᱥᱛᱟᱱᱤ (ᱢᱟᱱᱚᱠ ᱦᱤᱱᱫᱤ ᱟᱨ ᱢᱟᱱᱚᱠ ᱩᱨᱫᱩ), ᱵᱨᱚᱡ, ᱵᱩᱱᱫᱮᱞᱤ;
  • ᱥᱟᱢᱟᱝ ᱦᱤᱱᱫᱤ: ᱵᱟᱜᱷᱮᱞᱤ, ᱪᱷᱚᱛᱤᱜᱚᱲᱤ,

ᱥᱟᱢᱟᱝ ᱴᱚᱴᱷᱟᱠᱤᱭᱟᱹᱥᱟᱯᱲᱟᱣ

  • ᱦᱞᱵᱤᱠ

ᱠᱚᱧᱮ ᱴᱚᱴᱷᱟᱠᱤᱭᱟᱹᱥᱟᱯᱲᱟᱣ

ᱱᱟᱜᱟᱢᱥᱟᱯᱲᱟᱣ

ᱯᱨᱳᱴᱳᱼᱤᱱᱫᱳᱼᱟᱨᱡᱚᱥᱟᱯᱲᱟᱣ

ᱯᱨᱳᱴᱳᱼᱤᱱᱫᱳᱼᱟᱨᱡᱚ ᱫᱚ ᱤᱱᱫᱳᱼᱟᱨᱡᱚ ᱯᱟᱹᱨᱥᱤᱠᱚ ᱨᱮᱱᱟᱜ ᱢᱤᱫ ᱵᱮᱱᱟᱣ ᱨᱩᱣᱟᱹᱨ ᱯᱨᱳᱴᱳᱼᱯᱟᱹᱨᱥᱤ ᱠᱟᱱᱟ ᱾ ᱱᱚᱶᱟ ᱨᱮᱱᱟᱜ ᱠᱟᱨᱚᱱ ᱫᱚ ᱢᱟᱬᱮᱼᱵᱳᱭᱫᱤᱠ ᱤᱱᱫᱳᱼᱟᱨᱡᱚ ᱦᱚᱲ ᱠᱚᱣᱟᱜ ᱯᱟᱹᱨᱥᱤ ᱵᱮᱱᱟᱣ ᱨᱩᱣᱟᱹᱨ ᱠᱟᱱᱟ ᱾ ᱯᱨᱳᱴᱳᱼᱤᱱᱫᱳᱼᱟᱨᱡᱚ ᱢᱮᱱ ᱫᱚ ᱢᱟᱬᱮ ᱤᱱᱫᱳᱼᱟᱨᱡᱚ ᱨᱮᱱ ᱦᱟᱯᱲᱟᱢᱠᱚ (᱑᱕᱐᱐-᱓᱐᱐ BCE), ᱡᱟᱦᱟ ᱫᱚ ᱥᱚᱡᱷᱮ ᱵᱳᱭᱫᱤᱠ ᱟᱨ ᱢᱤᱛᱟᱱᱤᱼᱟᱨᱡᱚ ᱢᱮᱱᱛᱮ ᱵᱟᱲᱟᱭᱚᱜᱼᱟ ᱾

ᱥᱤᱧᱚᱛ ᱩᱯᱚᱢᱟᱦᱫᱮᱥᱥᱟᱯᱲᱟᱣ

ᱢᱟᱬᱮ ᱤᱱᱫᱳᱼᱟᱨᱡᱚᱥᱟᱯᱲᱟᱣ

ᱛᱟᱞᱢᱟ ᱤᱱᱫᱳᱼᱟᱨᱡᱚ (ᱯᱨᱟᱠᱨᱤᱛ)ᱥᱟᱯᱲᱟᱣ

ᱱᱟᱶᱟ ᱤᱱᱫᱳᱼᱟᱨᱡᱚᱥᱟᱯᱲᱟᱣ

ᱥᱤᱧᱚᱛ ᱩᱯᱚᱢᱟᱦᱫᱮᱥ ᱵᱟᱨᱦᱮᱥᱟᱯᱲᱟᱣ

ᱰᱳᱢᱟᱨᱤᱥᱟᱯᱲᱟᱣ

ᱞᱳᱢᱟᱵᱷᱨᱮᱱᱥᱟᱯᱲᱟᱣ

ᱨᱳᱢᱟᱱᱤᱥᱟᱯᱲᱟᱣ

ᱟᱨᱦᱚᱸ ᱧᱮᱞ ᱢᱮᱥᱟᱯᱲᱟᱣ

ᱵᱟᱨᱦᱮ ᱡᱚᱱᱚᱲᱥᱟᱯᱲᱟᱣ

ᱥᱟᱹᱠᱷᱭᱟᱹᱛᱥᱟᱯᱲᱟᱣ

  1. Hammarström, Harald; Forkel, Robert; Haspelmath, Martin, eds. (2017). "Indo-Aryan". Glottolog 3.0. Jena, Germany: Max Planck Institute for the Science of Human History. 
  2. "Overview of Indo-Aryan languages". Encyclopædia Britannica. Retrieved 8 ᱡᱩᱞᱟᱭ 2018. 
  3. Various counts depend on where the line is drawn between a "dialect" and a "language".ᱪᱷᱟᱸᱪ:Cn Glottolog 4.1 lists 224 languages.
  4. Edwin Francis Bryant; Laurie L. Patton (2005). The Indo-Aryan Controversy: Evidence and Inference in Indian History. Routledge. pp. 246–247. ISBN 978-0-7007-1463-6.